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Table 2 Annual insolation results obtained from data sources and modeling

From: Community-scale assessment of rooftop-mounted solar energy potential with meteorological, atlas, and GIS data: a case study of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

Orientation and data source Annual insolation (MJ/m2)
Horizontal (β = 0)
 Interactive maps of Canada 4,930
 mL&J real sky B + D 4,310
South-facing optimum tilt for B + D (β = 28°, γ = 0°)
 mL&J real sky B + D 4,790
 mL&J real sky B + D + G 4,860
Fully optimized tilt and azimuth for B + D (β = 30°, γ = 342°)
 mL&J real sky B + D 4,840
 mL&J real sky B + D + G 4,910
South-facing wall (β = 90, γ = 0°)
 Interactive maps of Canada 3,830
 mL&J real sky B + D 2,800
 mL&J real sky B + D + G 3,370
  1. As derived from values provided in Table1 and from real-sky results obtained with the modified Liu and Jordan model[35] and ERS data, including the total (beam, diffuse, and ground-reflected; B + D + G) insolation.