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Table 2 Empirical study: results of case studies

From: Decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources as a chance for local economic development: a qualitative study of two pioneer regions in Germany

Factor City of Emden (wind energy) City of Soltau (bioenergy)
Important actors • Stadtwerke Emden & EWEa
• Private individuals, farmersa
• Turbine producers Enercon and BARD
• Engineering firm specialized in renewable energy
• Local administration and politics (active mayor)
• Civil society/semipublic actors
• Farmers (as operators and/or substrate suppliers)a, b
• Agricultural firmsa, b
• Machinery syndicates
• Local utility: Stadtwerke Soltau
• Local administration
Types of local actors involved in value creation • Operators and turbine producers
• Various service providers: consulting, planning, development, and engineering firms
• Firms in construction, electrical installation/engineering, and other trades
• Operators and substrate suppliers
• Service providers, especially in planning and development
• Firms in construction, electrical installation/engineering, and tank and pipeline construction and maintenance
Characteristics of local actor relationships • Grown structures based on long-lasting cooperation
• Joint development and implementation of innovation (with turbine producers)
• Characterized by personal contact, stability, and trust
• Production structure based on division of labor among operators and regional firms
• Network of specialized suppliers
  1. aMost important operators; bwith employees directly involved in renewable energy-related business. Adapted from various expert interviews as well as official and unofficial sources.