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Table 2 Comparison of local socio-economic impact factors of burningscenarios

From: From coal to wood thermoelectric energy production: a review and discussion of potential socio-economic impacts with implications for Northwestern Ontario, Canada

Fuel Gross calorific value (MJ/kg) Cost per weight ($/kg) Cost per caloric value ($/MJ) Transportation in Canada Transportation to Aikokan, ON Relative GHG emissions and carbon neutrality hypothesis(g CO2/kWh*h) Waste by-products and disposal
Coal 25 to 27 [17, 55, 56] 7 to 18 (lignite) [57] 0.05 [58] $0.0019/MJ to $0.0020/MJ (lignite) Mine mouth in many instances 1,000 s of km primarily byrail, with some road depending on where production facilityis located [53, 59] Lignite coal is currently shipped approximately 1,000 kmfrom Benoit, SK. All fuel production is located well outsideAtikokan's jurisdiction. 850 to 1116 [22, 60] Coal releases carbon which was sequestered 225 to345 million years ago [55, 61]. Fly ash can be used in environmental applications wheremarkets dictate [49, 50, 62].
Wood Pellets 17 to 22 [15, 17, 55] 0.21 to 0.30 [63, 64] $0.012/MJ to $0.014/MJ Transported 100 s of km primarily by road with some rail [54] Relatively high cost per unit energy ($/MJ) necessitatesrelatively short transportation distance from wood pelletproduction facility. 39 to 80 [22] May be carbon neutral [51, 65, 66] Releasing carbon which was sequestered within thepast 200 years [67] Can be used for agricultural and forestry purposes [68, 69]
Co-fire Depending on fuel mix, values will vary between coal and woodpellets. Depending on fuel mix, values will vary between coal and woodpellets. Depending on fuel mix, values will vary between coal and woodpellets. Depending on fuel mix, values will vary between coal and woodpellets. Depending on fuel mix, values will vary between coal and woodpellets. 883 to 906 [22] A potential concrete additive [46]
  1. MJ/kg, Megajoule per kilogramme; $/kg, dollars per kilogramme; $/MJ,dollars per megajoule; g CO2/kWh*h, grammes of carbondioxide per kilowatt hour, hour.