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Table 3 Estimated costs of interventions by 2015 and 2030, and cumulative costs in BAU and RIC scenarios

From: Energy scenarios for the Minas Gerais State in Brazil: an integrated modeling exercise using System Dynamics

Estimated costs (in US$ million) 2015 2030 Cumulative
BAU RIC BAU RIC BAU RIC
Power generation 455 426 789 847 7,597 8,859
Imports of oil derivates 2,287 1,454 9,249 4,346 54,934 24,946
Oil production 10,025 9,992 10,577 10,787 135,590 135,590
Construction of renewable power plants 2,454 1,823 462 939 8,497 10,862
Construction of non-renewable power plants 117 41 469 67 3,192 1,245
Electricity exports −1,194 −1,332 0 −471 −14,892 −30,391
Electricity imports 0 0 0.449 0 0.590 0
Oil imports 5,726 5,726 8,798 8,798 121,083 121,083
Economic subsidy for ethanol production 0 0 0 7,746a 0 78,256a
Income generated from job creation 34 86 301 536 2,800 4,400
Total net cost 19,872 18,132 31,494 33,061 316,143b 350,452b
  1. aCalculated to keep the same payment for the producer, considering sugar or alcohol yield. This high cost is due to the price of sugar rises from US$139 to US$210/t (in 2030), while the price of alcohol (endogenous) suffers slight variation from US$298/t to US$300/t.
  2. bCumulative costs estimated from 2013 to 2030.