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Table 2 Policy arrangement of the RE policy subsystem

From: The institutional space of community initiatives for renewable energy: a comparative case study of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark

  The Netherlands Germany Denmark
Actors Department of Economic Affairs, large (fossil fuel) market parties have strong influence, little decentralization Ministry of Economy and Technology, involvement of Chancellor, large (nuclear/fossil fuel) market parties have moderate influence, public opinion strongly pro-RE, moderate decentralization Department of Energy and Climate, large (pro-RE) market parties have little influence, large decentralization
Rules Goal of 14% by 2020, no FIT but various subsidies, rules mostly regulatory Goal of 35% by 2020 and phase out of nuclear power plants Goal of 100% by 2050, rules both constraining and enabling, FITs present
Rules mostly enabling, FITs present
Resources Moderate government spending Large spending on goals Energiewende Large spending on long-term goals
Discourse Economical (short term), energy security, competitive position, profitability of RE Economical (long-term) Mixed environmental and economical
Ideal type arrangement Market oriented State oriented State oriented