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Table 2 Technical, economic, and environmental parameters and impacts of fuel production

From: Alternative fuels from forest residues for passenger cars - an assessment under German framework conditions

  Biogenic elec. Elec. mix (fossil) SNG CNG (fossil) FT diesel Diesel (fossil)
2020 scenarioa    G B,E   B E,G  
Technical, biomass per kWh fuel [kg50% dry matter/kWhfuel, at tank]b
  2.13   1.77   2.94  
Economic, fuel costs at filling station (excl. taxes) [€2011-ct/kWhfuel]c
2020d 18.5 16.2 13.4 14.1 5.7 16.0 20.0 7.6
2031d 17.1 16.5 11.3 12.1 6.0 13.0 14.5 8.2
Environmental, GHG emissions (well to tank) [g CO2-Eq/kWhfuel]e
  17 to 18f 766f 69 58 53 45
  1. aB, business as usual; G, gas age; E, e-mobility age. Biogenic electricity costs were not varied because biogenic electricity use is not dominated by cars. bThe used forest residue wood has a lower heating value of approximately 2.2 kWh/kg and a moisture content of 50%. All efficiencies are net efficiencies; production plant consumptions were subtracted. No byproducts were considered or used in the process.
  2. cDerived from: biogenic electricity, production costs 11 ct/kWh[11]; electricity mix, production costs 4.1 to 7.5 ct/kWh; transport, marketing, and margin 6 to 13 ct/kWh[1215]; SNG, production costs 5.6 to 13.3 ct/kWh[16]; CNG, production costs 1.0 to 6.4 ct/kWh; transport, compression, marketing, and margin 1.6 to 3 ct/kWh[12, 1719]; FT diesel, production costs 6.9 to 11.2 ct/kWh[11, 20, 21]; diesel, production costs 2.2 to 9.6 ct/kWh; transport, marketing, and margin 1.5 to 2.6 ct/kWh[19, 2224]; dlinear slope of costs between 2020 and 2031; eCalculated using ecoinvent 2.2 database[25] with the following modifications, electricity mix based on[26, 27]; SNG and FT diesel based on[11, 16]; fDepending on the number of installed public charging stations. Lower value for scenario E.