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Table 2 Structure of public participation methods in urban planning and design

From: Development of methods and practices of virtual reality as a tool for participatory urban planning: a case study of Vilnius City as an example for improving environmental, social and energy sustainability

Method Passive Active Interactive
Preparatory Data collection Field study, Interviews Internet, websites
Analytic Case study analysis, survey Working groups Policy dialogue
Disseminative Printed material Presentation, visualisation Open space technology, gaming and multiplayer
Monitoring Observation Committees, meetings, test audit E-government, virtual urban simulation