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Table 1 Overview is policy action plans Ruhr city governments have prepared regarding CHP

From: Decentralised combined heat and power in the German Ruhr Valley; assessment of factors blocking uptake and integration

City Year of origin of policy action plan Inhabitants Actions regarding decentralised CHP
Bochum 2009 373,000 Feasibility study: integration of small CHP (buildings) in the regional supply concept (‘virtual power plant’).
Bottrop 2011 116,000 Local heating grid Kirchhellen: construction of a CHP plant of 15,000 kW with local heating grid on the basis of renewable energies (biogas, wood).
Dortmund 2011 580,000 Potential study of utilising CHP units in private households and the commercial sector.
Block-heating station-‘Push’ in municipal properties.
Duisburg 2009 488,000 None.
Essen 2009 573,000 Integration of urban development contracts into town plans to regulate use of CHP.
Gelsenkirchen 2011 256,000 Block-heating station-‘Push’ in municipal properties.
Pilot project: ‘Extension of CHP’.
Local heating grid in interconnection (potential analysis for block heating stations).
Combination of geothermal energy and micro-CHP.
Oberhausen 2012 212,000 Heat supply in the form of heat contracting for private house owners.
Decentralised CHP for the local heating grid in Barmingholten.
Recklinghausen 2012 118,000 Extension of (renewable energy) CHP in the city area.
Witten 2013 98,000 ‘Push’ for combined heat and power.