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Table 3 Comparison of regional value-added (RVA) of renewable energy by type of technology for Germany and Japan

From: Regional economic effects of renewable energies - comparing Germany and Japan

Regional value-added (RVA)* Solar Wind Hydro Biomass
150 kW (roof) 1,000 kW (ground) 2,000 kW (onshore) 200 kW 5,000 kW (wood)
Germany Japan JP/GER Germany Japan JP/GER Germany Japan JP/GER Germany Japan JP/GER Germany Japan JP/GER
At planning/construction stage (JPY/kW) 27,066 14,307   20,595 18,013   11,194 18,089   124,981 136,639   18,532 33,693  
RVA as percent of indirect investment cost 22.0% 13.1% −8.9% 22.4.% 13.4% −9.0% 23.7% 13.8% −9.9% 43.9 13.8% −30.1% 26.6% 17.6% −9.0%
of which: business profits after tax 20.4% 6.6% −13.8% 20.0% 6.7% −13.3% 18.6% 6.9% −11.7% 61.0% 6.9% −54.1% 42.1% 7.1% −35.0%
of which: personal income after tax 72.7% 87.7% 15.0% 73.1% 87.5% 14.4% 74.8% 87.4% 12.6% 36.1% 87.4% 51.3% 52.2% 80.3% 28.2%
of which: regional tax income 6.9% 5.7% −1.2% 6.8% 5.8% −1.0% 6.8% 5.8% −1.0% 2.8% 5.8% 3.0% 5.8% 12.5% 6.8%
At system operation stage (JPY/kW) 9,926 12,614   11,917 10,616   6,963 9,396   24,873 56,808   33,639 42,004  
RVA as percent revenue from system operation 25.8% 30.0% 4.2% 33.4% 28.1% −5.3% 26.8% 24.4% −2.4% 27.6% 31.9% 4.3% 24.6% 20.8% −3.8%
of which: business profits after tax 70.0% 47.1% −22.9% 73.9% 46.7% −27.2% 74.2% 46.2% −28.0% 62.2% 50.3% 11.9% 51.8% 27.6% −24.2%
of which: personal income after tax 15.2% 32.3% 17.1% 12.3% 31.0% 18.7% 13.1% 28.5% 15.4% 22.5% 30.8% 8.3% 37.1% 61.8% 24.7%
of which: regional tax income 14.8% 20.5% 5.7% 13.8% 22.3% 8.5% 12.7% 25.2% 12.5% 15.3% 18.9% 3.6% 11.1% 10.6% −0.5%
  1. *Calculation of regional value-added (RVA) based on primary research data for Japan (in 2012) and from IÖW for Germany (in 2012; data refer to aggregated facility stock for solar installations) (Hirschl B, Heinbach K, Prahl A, Salecki S, Schröder A, Aretz A, Weiß : Wertschöpfung durch Erneuerbare Energien – Ermittlung der Effekte auf Länder- und Bundesebene, forthcoming)/exchange rate: 130JPY/Euro.
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