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Table 1 Different kinds of flexible power for biogas, data based on Smart Bioenergy, Chapter Biogas [30]

From: Flexible bioenergy supply for balancing fluctuating renewables in the heat and power sector—a review of technologies and concepts

Provision/shift Marketing Additional technical demands
Up to 5 min Secondary control reserve (to balance the net frequency) Control gateway, CHP adjusted to start stop operation
5–15 min Minute reserve (to balance the net frequency) Control gateway, CHP adjusted to start stop operation
15 min–6 h Spot market—intraday (balance forecast errors, larger plant malfunctions, etc.) Gas storage capacity, additional CHP capacity
6–24 h Spot market—day-ahead (balance residual loads) Additional CHP capacity, heat storage, additional gas storage capacity
Potentially: process control, feeding management, adjustment of substrate and gas management systems
1–7 days Spot market—day-ahead (balance residual loads, in particular macro weather situation) Additional CHP capacity, heat storage, additional gas storage capacity, process control, feeding management, adjustment of substrate and gas management systems, long-term substrate storage
7–90 days Spot- and derivative markets (balancing residual load, seasonal demand) Additional CHP capacity, additional gas storage capacity, heat storage, process control, feeding management, adjustment of substrate and gas management systems, long-term substrate storage