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Table 2 Types and time frames of increasing flexible power supply based on solid biofuels, data based on Smart Bioenergy, Ch. 4 [106]

From: Flexible bioenergy supply for balancing fluctuating renewables in the heat and power sector—a review of technologies and concepts

Flexibility time frame Flexibility type (market) Additional technical demands
<15 min Secondary + tertiary control reserve (to balance the net frequency) Steam bypass and/or storage (for steam cycle power plants); gas storage (for gasification + gas engine)
15 min–6 h Intraday (balance forecast errors, larger plant malfunctions, etc.) Advanced control strategies, heat storage
6–24 h Day-ahead (balance residual loads) Advanced control strategies, heat storage
1–7 days Day-ahead (balance residual loads, in particular macro weather situation) Long-term heat storage with high capacity
7–90 days Day-ahead (balance residual load, seasonal demand) Long-term heat storage with high capacity
90–365 days Day-ahead Increasing efficiency in part load operation, e.g., by applying constructive changes in combustion chamber or using modular designs