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Table 3 Challenger types—overview

From: Protests against German electricity grid extension as a new social movement? A journey into the areas of conflict

  Action orientation/Deviation from status quo: moderate, high, maximum Formal resources
Topic challengers Moderate, high, maximum. Each topic challenger has a strong regional focus and motivation. They have specific interests in organizing protests against the power lines. Performing high-profile activities like demonstrations. Taking legal action, raising objections against planning procedures, putting pressure on local politicians, presence in medias
Concept challengers High, maximum. No direct self-interests. These actors are motivated by the aim to influence environmental, energy, and climate policy. Provide expert opinions, presence in the medias, support topic challengers by providing arguments
Acceptance challengers Moderate. Actors have specific self-interests. Knowledge of technology, presence in the medias, lobbying activities, support topic challengers by providing arguments