From: Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and eco-friendly environment (R-E^{5}) in Nigeria

Variables | ADF statistic | PP statistic | KPSS statistic |
---|---|---|---|

InREN_{
t
}
| −7.1190* | −10.2891* | 0.1288 |

ΔInREN_{
t
}
| −4.5976* | −17.7251* | 0.18848** |

InPOP_{
t
}
| −3.5147 | −1.7788 | 0.057359 |

ΔInPOP_{
t
}
| −3.7071** | −3.8137* | 0.1880** |

InGDP_{
t
}
| −5.2226* | −5.2407* | 0.0770 |

ΔInGDP_{
t
}
| −8.1553* | −24.3946* | 0.3493* |

InFUEt | −2.9590 | −2.9986 | 0.0578 |

ΔInFUE_{
t
}
| −5.9338* | −6.8035* | 0.2283* |

InCO_{2t
}
| −1.8842 | −1.8247 | 0.1413 |

ΔInCO_{2t
}
| −5.4920* | −6.0445* | 0.1820** |