Skip to main content

Table 3 The result of ARDL co-integration

From: Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and eco-friendly environment (R-E5) in Nigeria

Bounds testing to co-integration   Diagnostic tests
  Optimal lag F-statistics X 2 normal X 2 ARCH X 2 reset X 2 serial
FCO2(CO2/FUE, GDP, POP, REN 4, 2, 2, 1 14.2739 1.1704 [1] 0.5462 [1] 0.0150 [2] 1.8323
FFUE(FUE/CO2, GDP, POP, REN 4,1, 2, 1 30.7047 0.2829 [1] 0.7610 [1] 1.2294 [2] 3.9920
FGDP(GDP/CO2, FUE, POP, REN 2, 2, 1, 1 6.7908 1.1704 [1] 0.0150 [1] 1.1809 [2] 5.5904
FPOP(POP/CO2, FUE, GDP, REN 2, 1, 2, 1 14.4282 0.5437 [1] 0.1968 [1] 2.1207 [2] 2.7049
FREN(REN/CO2, FUE, GDP, POP 2, 1, 1, 1 5.0009 1.8256 [1] 0.2633 [1] 1.9967 [2] 1.8149
  Critical values (T = 32)a
Significance level (%) Lower bounds (0)    Upper bounds (1)   
 1 3.43    4.60   
 5 2.86    3.99   
 10 2.57    3.66   
  1. The optimal lag length determined by AIC. Numbers in square brackets ([]) indicate the order of diagnostic tests
  2. *Significance at 1 % level; **significance at 5 % level; ***significance at 10 % level
  3. aCritical values are collected from [25] (in all cases, the calculated F-statistics are greater than the 1 % upper bound critical values provided by [25], table, case III (intercept and unrestricted trend))