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Table 5 The result of Granger causality test

From: Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and eco-friendly environment (R-E5) in Nigeria

Variable direction of Granger causality
Short run Long run
Likelihood ratio (LR) statistics t-statistics
  ∑ΔInCO2t-i ∑ΔInFUE t-i ∑ΔInGDP t-i ∑ΔInPOP t-i ∑ΔInREN t-i ECT(−1)
ΔInCO2t 4.4702* [0.0222 0.3639 [0.6989] 2.89808*** [0.0535] 2.8390*** [0.0791] −0.7443* [−10.5207]
ΔInFUE t 7.6757* [0.0028] 0.0824 [0.9211] 0.6432 [0.5348] 2.2842** [0.1245] −0.5768** [−2.4900]
ΔInGDP t 0.3687 [0.6956 0.5684 [0.5739] 0.3230 [0.7272] 3.2007 [0.0594] −0.3729** [−2.8000]
ΔInPOP t 0.3953 [0.6779] 2.1530** [0.1390] 0.0986 [0.9065] 0.1700 [0.8446] −0.2214** [−2.1800]
ΔInREN t 0.3878 [0.6829 1.5640 [0.2307] 2.1906** [0.1364] 0.6250 [0.5441] −0.5294** [−2.2300]
  1. Numbers in square brackets ([]) indicate the order of diagnostic tests
  2. *Significance at 1 % level; **significance at 5 % level; ***significance at 10 % level