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Table 1 Examples of environmental regional and non-regional GHG emissions for the example case study’s transesterification bioenergy system (excluding aspects relating to infrastructure). All regional burdens (GHG emissions) were calculated for each constituent regional grid cell. Non-regional burdens were calculated in an aggregated manner, i.e., no spatial resolution taken into account

From: RELCA: a REgional Life Cycle inventory for Assessing bioenergy systems within a region

Regional activitiesa Regional burdensb Non-regional burdensc Non-regional activities
Biomass production    
Field operationsd Exhaust emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4) CO2, N2O, CH4, SF6, NMVOCs e.g., oil extraction, refining to diesel
Application of fertilisere Field emissions N2O f, NH3 CO2, N2O, CH4, SF6, NMVOCs e.g., production of various fertilisers g
Application of other management productsh No direct GHG emissions CO2, N2O, CH4, SF6, NMVOCs e.g., production of management products
Land usedi n.a. n.a. n.a.
Transport    
Transport to biodiesel plant j Exhaust emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4, R134) CO2, N2O, CH4, SF6,NMVOCs e.g., oil extraction, refining to diesel
Conversion    
Oil mill extractionk No direct GHG emissions CO2, N2O, CH4, SF6,NMVOCs e.g., electrical energy (national grid), natural gas (national characteristics) auxiliaries l, e.g., acids, hydroxides
Transesterification and purification CO2, N2O, CH4, SF6,NMVOCs (same as oil mill)
  1. aRegional activities refer to activities of bioenergy production within the region
  2. bRegional burdens—main environmental interventions, i.e. resource uses and emissions induced in the region
  3. cNon-regional burdens refer to all burdens produced outside the region, from non-regional activities outside the region (not complete list)
  4. dField operations refer to machine operations [93]. Provides fuel consumption estimates for three different soil types, assumed to be similar to those outlined by [94]; light (<12 % clay), medium (13–25 % clay) and heavy (>25 % clay)
  5. eRates of nitrogen fertiliser assumed ranged from 134–179 kg N ha−1 a−1 and were determined based on the yield statistics for East Germany (See Additional file 1)
  6. fDirect emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) were estimated according to the German national guidelines [95] using a Tier 2 approach [96], with the emission factors based on geographical parameters outlined by [97] used and using climate data (daily precipitation and temperature)— provided by the German weather service
  7. gFertiliser mixes for the region were determined from regional sales statistics [98] (See Additional file 1)
  8. hOther management products such as pesticides, herbicides etc. (See Additional file 1)
  9. iRelating to shifts in soil organic carbon, for simplicity no land transformations were assumed to occur within the region. Additionally, for ease of calculation here and because it is a simplistic example we do not include CO2 emissions in relation to changes in soil carbon due to the cropping system
  10. jThe emissions outlined in Eco Invent 2.2 (CH: operation, lorry 20-28 t, full, fleet average [Street] [99] ) were used and only one journey to the plant was taken into accounted
  11. kSee Table 2
  12. lSee Table 2