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Table 1 Expected risks and opportunities for biodiversity conservation from suggested scenarios

From: To integrate or to segregate food crop and energy crop cultivation at the landscape scale? Perspectives on biodiversity conservation in agriculture in Europe

Scenarios Energy crop types Production system? Risks and opportunities for biodiversity conservation
A1 1st-gen. crops Productive agricultural land (food/fodder crops) Risk of no improvements in farmland biodiversity
A2 1st-gen. crops + dedicated energy crops Opportunity for mitigating pressures on farmland biodiversity
A3 Dedicated energy crops Opportunities for mitigating various impacts of agriculture and supporting biodiversity
B1 1st-gen. crops Economically marginal land (food/fodder crops and permanent grassland) Risks of negative effects on grassland biodiversity
B2 1st-gen. crops + dedicated energy crops Risks and opportunities depending on a planning and landscape design; opportunity for stabilising HNV farming systems
B3 Dedicated energy crops Trade-off between conservation of rare species and habitats and conservation of biodiversity-friendly farming systems
C1; C2 Dedicated energy crops Unsuitable low-grade land (semi-natural vegetation, permanent grassland) Opportunity for supporting and enhancing biodiversity through supporting pastoral systems
C3 Vegetation biomass from grasslands   Unknown, depending on changes in management