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Table 5 The European Union data on population, expenditures, and space use (data in 2012)

From: Innovative offices for smarter cities, including energy use and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions

  Population 2008–2013 Expenditures on education 2005–2012 Areas 2006–2012 Urban space use 2003–2014 Smartness dilution index
mln citizens Share 60+ Share 18–24 years Students mln Total € mln €/pupils all level Tertiary €/student Built-in area km2a Property room/person m2/person Built-in/population *property
EU 27 504 24.5% 8.0% 20 574,957 5737 138,432 6795 65,055 1.6 129 82
Annual growth
 EU 27 0.2% 1.4% -1.6% 1.4% 0.6% 0.0% 2% 0% 8.4% 1.1% 129 7%
 Belgium 0.8% 0.5% 0.8% 2.9% 1.1% 1.5% 2% −1% 21.0% 0.1% 193 20%
 Bulgaria −0.6% 2.1% -3.6% 3.1% −0.1% −0.2% 0% −4%   1.7% 144 −1%
 Czech Republic 0.3% 2.5% −2.3% 4.9% 1.2% 0.2% 7% 1% 6.6% 2.7% 117 4%
 Denmark 0.5% 1.3% 2.3% 1.9% 0.5% −0.6% 1% −2% 1.4% 0.0% 178 1%
 Germany −0.2% 1.2% −2.0% 3.4% 0.9% 3.7% 4% 1% 6.1% 1.0% 113 5%
 Estonia −0.3% 1.8% −4.2% 0.3% 1.2% 2.0% 5% 6% −1.3% 5.6% 148 −6%
 Ireland 0.5% 2.4% −4.5% 0.9% 3.1% 2.4% 4% 4% 1.3% 0.0% 182 1%
 Greece −0.3% 1.4% −2.0%       6.5% 0.0% 129 7%
 Spain 0.2% 1.4% −3.0% 1.3% 2.0% −0.6% 3% 1% 6.9% 0.0% 135 7%
 France 0.5% 1.3% −1.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 2% 1% 7.4% 1.0% 136 6%
 Italy 0.5% 1.1% −0.2% −0.4% 0.8% −2.7% 1% 1% 10.4% 0.0% 135 10%
 Cyprus 1.3% 0.8% −0.3% 8.4% 2.9% 3.1% 7% 1%   0.0% 273 −1%
 Latvia −1.4% 1.8% −4.1% −3.7% 0.2% 0.9% 2% 10% −19.2% 3.4% 95 −21%
 Lithuania −1.3% 1.8% −1.7% -0.6% 0.3% 2.6% 6% 5% −15.5% 5.5% 129 −19%
 Luxembourg 2.2% 0.7% 2.1%       24.2% 1.8% 123 19%
 Hungary −0.3% 2.6% 0.1% −2.2% −1.4% -3.8% −1% 1% 12.8% 2.0% 159 11%
 Malta 0.7% 3.0% −1.3% 3.6% 0.5% 9.1% 4% 11%   0.8% 140 −2%
 Netherlands 0.4% 2.2% 0.8% 5.7% 1.0% −0.6% 3% −2% 10.7% −0.8% 103 11%
 Austria 0.5% 1.1% 0.9% 6.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1% −4% 9.2% 0.1% 208 9%
 Poland 0.0% 3.1% −3.5% −0.3% 0.6% 4.2% 3% 3% 1.1% 1.7% 121 0%
 Portugal −0.2% 2.2% −1.9% 0.7% 0.7% −1.7% 2% 5% 15.6% 3.5% 204 12%
 Romania −0.5% 1.9% −3.9% 3.4%   −12.3%     1.9% 124 −1%
 Slovenia 0.4% 1.8% −3.7% −0.7% −0.6% −0.1% 1% 0% −0.6% 5.7% 77 −6%
 Slovakia 0.1% 1.3% −5.6% 3.9% 2.5% 6.1% 6% −1% 12.1% 0.1% 135 12%
 Finland 0.5% 2.3% −0.2% 0.1% 0.8% 1.6% 2% 1% −0.3% 0.0% 174 −1%
 Sweden 0.9% 1.6% 1.1% 1.4% 0.7% 1.0% 2% 0% 9.0% 1.0% 168 7%
 United Kingdom 0.7% 0.8% −0.1% 1.5% 0.0% −2.1% 0% 2% −1.3% 0.9% 90 −3%
  1. aTotal land is 3,947,726 km2, i.e., built-in area is 1.6%