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Table 2 Options considered for low-carbon strategy in WAPP electricity system

From: Low-carbon development strategy for the West African electricity system: preliminary assessment using System dynamics approach

Low-carbon technology Reference technology Remark
Off-grid hybrid wind-diesel Off-grid diesel gen Generation technology
Off-grid solar PV Off-grid diesel gen Generation technology
Small hydropower Off-grid diesel gen Generation technology
Wind turbines Simple cycle gas turbine (SCGT) Generation technology
Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) SCGT Generation technology
Solar PV (grid) SCGT Generation technology
Biomass SCGT Generation technology
Hydropower SCGT Generation technology
Supercritical coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) Subcritical coal Generation technology
Combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) SCGT Generation technology
EE CFL lighting (grid) Incandescent lighting Demand side management
EE CFL lighting (off-grid) Incandescent lighting Demand side management
T & D losses Improved system operations T & D
  1. Source: World Bank [38]