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Table 2 Cases of ‘accumulation by dispossession’ connected with the 2000–2010 expansion of the palm oil frontier in Colombia

From: Understanding the expansion of energy crops beyond the global biofuel boom: evidence from oil palm expansion in Colombia

Case
(Region in the palm oil geography)
Form of ‘accumulation by dispossession’ Previous displacement of local population Sources
Occupation of land left by displaced people Oil palm cultivation in connection with displacement operated by illegal armed groups Actual or attempted occupation of lands under contested ownership rights Occupation of public lands Land use change Land
concentration
1. Forced displacement and oil palm cultivation in the Jiguamiandó and Curvaradó rivers basins. Municipality of Carmen del Darién-Chocó. (North Region)       
1998
[65, 98,99,100,101]
Interview with officer from the Ombudsman Office during fieldwork in 2010.
2. Forced displacement and oil palm cultivation in the areas of Monterrey and San Blas. Municipality of Simití- Bolívar. (Central Region)       
1998
[68, 102, 103].
3. Las Pavas estate. Municipality of El Peñón-Bolívar. (Central Region)     
2003
[104,105,106]. Interview with the PDPMM’s coordinator of the land protection project during fieldwork in 2010.
4. 1500 hectare of the Bellacruz estate. Municipality of La Gloria-Cesar. (Central Region)     
1996-2005
[107,108,109]
5. Plots in the middle of palm oil plantations used by peasants for small-scale subsistence farming. Municipality of San Alberto-Cesar. (Central Region)        No [110]
Interviews and group meetings during fieldwork in 2011.
6. Massive establishment of oil palm by different actors in the Municipality of Simití-Bolívar. (Central Region)      
1998-2006
[68]
7. Oil palm oil cultivation in Afro-Colombian collective territories of Alto Mira and Frontera Municipality of Tumaco-Nariño. (South-west Region)        No [70, 111]
Interview with officer from the Ombudsman Office during fieldwork in 2010.
8. Massive establishment of oil palm. Municipality of Zona Bananera–Magdalena. (North region)       [67]
9. Guapi Abajo palm oil project. Municipalty of Guapi-Cauca. (South-west Region)        No [69, 96, 112]
10. El Agrado1,2,3 estates. Municipality of Mapiripán–Meta (East Region)       
1997-2006
[113]
11. El Secreto1,2,3 estates.Municipality of Mapiripán Meta (East Region)     
1997-2006
[71, 113]
12. Las Palmeras estate. Municipality of San Juan de Arama-Meta (East Region)      
2000-2006
[71, 114]
13 Poligrow palm oil project. Municipality of Mapiripán-Meta (East Region)      
1997-2006
 
14. Bioagroindustrial de Colombia Ltda. Tibu-Norte de Santander(Central Region)      
1998-2006
 
15. Inversiones Palma Oriente. Tibu-Norte de Santander (Central Region)      
1998-2006
 
16. Ecopalma s.a.s Tibu-Norte de Santander (Central Region)      
1998-2006