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Table 12 Physical properties and characteristics of pyrolysis oil––source from [78]

From: Microwave pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass––a contribution to power Africa

Properties Oil characteristics Reasons
Appearance Dark red-brown to dark green Micro-carbon and chemical composition in oil
Odor Distinctive odor–an acid smoky smell Lower molecular weight aldehydes and acids
Density Very high compared to fossil fuel
Pyrolysis bio-oil; 1.2 kg/liter
Fossil oil; 0.85 kg/liter
High moisture and heavy molecule contamination
Viscosity Can vary as low as 25 cSt to as high as 1000 cSt Wide range of feedstock, water content, and the amount of light ends collected
Heating value Significantly lower than fossil oil High oxygen content
Aging Viscosity increase, volatility decrease, phase separation, and deposition of gum occur with time Complex structure and high pH value
Miscibility Miscible with polar solvent but totally immiscible with petroleum fuel Polar in nature