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Table 2 Mixed effect models for the energy efficiency of well-being

From: Democratic institutions and the energy intensity of well-being: a cross-national study

  Executive Legislature   Political competition Full democracy
  b se p b se p b se p b se p
Elected executive − 7.183 316.627 0.982
Elected legislature − 18.432 332.570 0.956
Political competition 232.143 371.941 0.533
Full 50.561 196.812 0.797
Military expenditures (% of GDP) 89.077 77.109 0.248 130.058 144.170 0.367 101.574 68.497 0.138 38.716 50.477 0.443
Exports (% of GDP) − 0.970 5.412 0.858 3.725 9.752 0.703 − 6.415 5.399 0.235 − 3.989 4.843 0.410
Renewable energy consumption (% total) 4.511 25.885 0.862 59.118 71.617 0.409 − 4.086 25.514 0.873 − 12.108 12.201 0.321
GDP per capita (log) − 17,803.370 3009.469 0.000 − 21,356.130 3799.184 0.000 − 17,509.030 2707.017 0.000 − 19,590.870 2415.219 0.000
GDP per capital squared (log) 998.197 178.945 0.000 1176.236 239.567 0.000 960.270 152.206 0.000 1121.018 138.468 0.000
Urban population (% total) 55.449 37.271 0.137 89.301 52.247 0.087 − 12.065 54.849 0.826 31.470 23.430 0.179
Constant 29,872 29,403 29,911 30,530
Std dev. (constant) 4196 4307 4312 3875
  1. All models include year fixed effects and entropy balancing weights. n = 2150 observations, 138 countries. All predictors are group-demeaned