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Table 1 Samples from the renewable energy site database for heat and electricity production

From: Balanced renewable energy scenarios: a method for making spatial decisions despite insufficient data, illustrated by a case study of the Vorderland-Feldkirch Region, Vorarlberg, Austria

  Renewable energy carrier m2/kWh/a kWh/m2/a
Heat Biomass from forests, combustion of wood chips
 Austrian average of heat output, incl. a heat net connection
0.568 1.76
Heat Biomass from maize
 Austrian average of heat production with 1 or 2 harvests per year, biogas combustion, incl. a heat net connection
0.169 5.9
Heat Biomass, fast-growing shrub, poplars
 Austrian average of heat production with 1 or 2 harvests per year, wood chip combustion, incl. a heat net connection
0.142 7.04
Elec. Wind turbine, middle-sized
 (Single or row setup) Capacity: 0.5 MW per turbine Location: Waldviertel, Lower Austria
0.098 10.19
Elec. Wind park, large
 (Cluster setup)
 Capacity: 3 MW per turbine
 Location: Neusiedl, Burgenland
0.081 12.2
Elec. Wind turbine, large
 (Single or row setup)
 Capacity: 3 MW per turbine Location: Neusiedl, Burgenland
0.04 25
Heat Low-temperature geothermal source
 (Closed heat exchange devices)
 Well-field, depth 100 m
 Energy output: Austrian average
0.032 30.4
Elec. Large photovoltaic power plant
 Collector modules on open land or on large flat roofs
 Location: Oberzeiring, Steiermark
0.019 52
Heat Large solar-thermal power plant
 Collector modules on open land or on large flat roofs
 Location: Vienna
0.008 125
Elec. Small photovoltaic power plant
 Coverage of a complete roof
 Location: Vienna
0.007 145
Heat Small solar-thermal power plant
 Coverage of a complete roof
 Location: Vienna.
0.003 297
Elec. Middle-sized river power plant
 Capacity 1.8 MW
 Location: Ingering, close to Spielberg, Steiermark
0.0005 2200