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Table 1 Analytical framework and final statements of stakeholders’ opinions regarding the PV panels on avalanche protection in St. Antönien (Graubünden, Switzerland). The IDs here have consecutive numbers to help the reader; the original was not numbered to avoid influencing the Q sorting

From: Drivers and risks for renewable energy developments in mountain regions: a case of a pilot photovoltaic project in the Swiss Alps

PV project ID Statement
Economy 1 The project would probably have been worthwhile if other factors had been included, such as tourism, not just the revenues of energy production.
2 If I have to pay much more for solar power than for conventional electricity, I prefer not to do so.
3 Building the power line for the solar project would have been too expensive.
Technology 4 The PV project in St. Antönien could have been a model for solar systems over avalanche defenses in Switzerland.
5 If more solar panels could be built (3.5 MW instead of 1 MW), the costs would not have been a problem.
6 It is not suitable to have any additional use in the avalanche defenses.
7 The test installation was good for the project, because it showed that the solar system can withstand heavy snowfall.
8 The engineers have underestimated the difficulties.
Environment 9 Since the solar system was planned for existing avalanches, there would be no additional impact on the landscape or residents.
Social 10 Our village, St. Antönien, was too small to realize such a project.
11 Local residents know best what the community needs.
Policy process 12 The initiators were unable to present the project in detail; they did not know exactly how the project would go on.
Decision-making process
Economy 13 The project lost the pioneering character because of the delay in getting the grant.
14 The financing activities, such as the sale of certificates and crowdfunding, were successful.
15 They worked too slowly; it led to rising costs.
Technology 16 For me it was a warning when the electricity companies stepped out of the project.
Environment 17 My main motivation in the project was to produce renewable energies in St. Antönien.
18 I was afraid that the environmental associations found rare species of plants or animals up in the mountain and said that the power lines could not be built.
Social 19 We could have made an ecological contribution; our region could have significantly gained value.
20 In the course of the project, I was insecure.
Policy process 21 All stakeholders should be involved in decision-making.
22 I was always very well informed by the municipality.
23 The low agreement at the end of the project process was largely due to the fact that the initiators underestimated the complexity of the decision-making process.
Energy Policy
Economy 24 It would have been easy to sell the solar power produced in St. Antönien.
25 I am sure that the electricity producers are currently having big financial problems and will not give any bank loans for electricity projects.
26 I can understand that the Confederation did not support financially the project
27 The canton should have supported the project financially.
Technology 28 I think the planned nuclear phase-out of Switzerland is wrong.
29 In Switzerland, we should improve energy efficiency (equipment, roof insulation).
Environment 30 In Switzerland, we have to produce much more renewable energy.
Social 31 The energy transition will not be so easy to implement; there are too many people and lobbyists involved.
32 Local interests are enough taken into account at national level.
Policy process 33 The confederation would have to rethink the concept of the energy strategy because at the moment it is not clear.
34 The many regulatory bodies in Switzerland made the project process complex.