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Table 2 Operational elements of the valorization units

From: Anaerobic digestion and integration at urban scale: feedback and comparative case study

Name Process studied Wastes Collection Storage Pretreatment In flow Reactor Condition Biogas production Digestate/lixivia Biogas valorization
Bedzed Living Machine1 Wastewater By pipe directly from household; district area restricted
LEAP AD in situ Food waste Transport by inhabitant; collection from local deposits (bike) Pre-feed tank with grinder 2m3 reactor Composting fertilizer CHP unit
Les Grisettes (Montpellier) AD in situ Household waste and green waste Collection truck; district area extended Mechanical-biological treatment and heating 140,000 tons/year of household waste (organic + inorganic) Based on the Valorga® process
Dry condition co-digestion
Annual production: 11800000 m3 of biogas estimated Composting 33,000 t/year CHP unit generate yearly 22 GWh as electricity and 12 GWh as heat. Used for local installation and dwellings
Brest Compost in situ Green waste and a fraction of organic waste from household Transport
Freiburg im Breisgau AD ex situ Organic waste from household and local commercial establishments Transport; urban area extended Mechanical sorting and crushing: Addition of water 39,200 tons/year Based on the Valorga® process
Thermophilic condition; Dry condition; Mono-digestion; 4000 m3
110–120 Nm3/t input digestion Screw press; Fertilizer
12,600 tons/year and Composting 9500 tons/year
CHP plant; 11 600,000 kWh as electricity
Flintenbreite (Lübeck) AD in situ Wastewater and organic waste from household Independent wastewater system and collection directly from household Shredding storage tank and sanitation 1217 m3/year of blackwater; 3 tons/year kitchen waste CSTR of 72 m3 Wet condition; mesophilic temperature; HRT: 21–24 days; co-digestion 4700 m3 CH4/year; 22,500 m3 CH4/year estimated for maximal conditions and additional co-digestion Screw press; fertilizer and composting CHP valorization unit
Jenfelder Au (Hamburg) “Local” AD Black water; greasy water; kitchen waste and lawn cutting District area extended Silage for lawn cutting Macerator or press for lawn cutting 30m3/days Semi- CSTR of 900m3 Wet condition; mesophilic condition; HRT: 25 days; co-digestion Separation; fertilizer and composting; annual production estimated 1700–3500 t of compost and 50–120 t of fertilizer CHP unit
Quartier Vauban (Freiburg) AD in situ Wastewater From one building by pipe; district area restricted CHP unit
Allermöhe (Hamburg) Compost in situ Wastewater and organic waste from household and green waste Collected directly by inhabitants; transport 40 l/cap/year
Nashik AD ex situ Food waste (from local hotels) and blackwater Community toilet complex and transport truck; city area restricted Storage in septic tank Shredding and sanitation process 30 tons/day 1300 m3 Wet condition; HRT: 35 days; co-digestion 2500 m3 of biogas/days 1.5–2 million tons/day as manure CHP unit to produce 3300 kWh/day (estimation)
Noorderhoek (Sneek) AD in situ Blackwater, kitchen waste, and grey water (study) Pipe directly from household; district area restricted Flocculation for grey water; used of macerator for kitchen waste. 280–670 l/days UASB of 2.5–7 m3 Wet condition, mesophilic temperature, HRT: 0.8–27 days; co-digestion; mono-digestion (study) 13.8–12.2 m3 CH4/cap/year Struvite precipitation and nitrification/denitrification tank CHP unit; 133–148 kWh/cap/year (heat)
Eva-Lanxmeer (Culemborg) AD in situ; Living Machine1 Blackwater, food waste and green waste Independent wastewater system; social program for collect and transport Shredding and acidification tank 1073 m3/year 70 m3 Wet condition, mesophilic condition; HRT: 20 days; co-digestion 27,000 m3 biogas/year Composting and fertilizer CO2 extraction and CHP
Malmö AD ex situ (Sjölunda) Blackwater and a fraction of household and food waste Specific collect truck and vacuum collection points; urban area extended Storage tank (vacuum collection) Sludge thickener 1350 l wastewater/second, only a fraction is used for AD 6 reactor of 16,000 m3 Wet condition; mesophilic temperature HRT: 40 days (wastewater); co-digestion Capacity of the gas upgrading plant: 550 Nm3/h Dewatering and fertilizer 80% of the biogas produced is converted into fuel
Bo01/Fullriggaren (Malmö) AD ex situ (Kristianstad) Food waste (co-digestion with manure) Vacuum system; sink shredders; urban area extended Separated tank Mechanical sorting; shredding; extruding; sanitation 62,500 tons/year (5500 tons of food waste) CSTR of 2 × 5000 m3 Wet condition; mesophilic temperature; HRT: 22 days; co-digestion Fertilizer; 63,000 tons/year of liquid bio manure Upgrading as biofuel capacity of 200 Nm3/h; 40,000 MWh/year; heating: 65% fuel: 35%
AD ex situ (Sjölunda) Wastewater (+ fraction of food waste greasy waste) Pipe directly from household; urban area extended WWTP pretreatment; sludge thickener 1350 l wastewater/second 6 × 1 6000 m3 Wet condition; mesophilic temperature; HRT: 40 days; co-digestion Fertilizer Upgrading as biofuel capacity of 550 Nm3/h
Hammarby Sjöstad (Stockholm) AD in situ (Henriksdal) Wastewater (+ fraction of food waste greasy waste) Pipe directly from household; urban area extended Chemically precipitated 54,000 tons/year (based on dry sludge) CSTR; 7 reactors for a total of 39,000 m3 Wet condition; mesophilic condition (thermophilic forthcoming); HRT: 19 days Dewatering and fertilizer; 56,500 tons/ year of de-watering sludge Upgrading as biofuel; 58,000 MWh (maximum) upgraded from Henriksdal WWTP, majorly in fuel and a small fraction is upgrading in household gas for the district
AD ex situ (Södertörn) Food waste Vacuum collection points and transport trucks Storage tank (vacuum collection); urban area extended Mechanical thickener; sanitation process 50,000 tons/year (extended soon to 260,000 tons/year) 2 reactors of 4500 m3 Increased to 20 million Nm3 of upgraded biogas Centrifugation and evaporation plant; 14,000 tons of bio-fertilizer yearly Upgrading as biofuel; 80 GWh biogas (which will increase to 200 GWh).