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Table 13 Relevant quotes under key measures and indicators

From: Sustainability of community-owned mini-grids: evidence from India

Measure Indicator(s) Participant quotes
Livelihood Commercial activities Q1:“If some hand holding is done and support is provided, we could venture into some business in the future. It gets very difficult to start on our own.”
Q2: “I wanted to buy a small pump to irrigate my field, but when I asked the VEC they denied the permission because they said not enough capacity was available.”
Q3: “We do not try new things [eg. productive loads] with the installation…we just turn the switch on and off. If we try something new and if there is a problem, then who will take care of it? we will be left in the dark again for may days”
Model sustenance Systems functionality Q4:“We are aware that when the battery needs replacement, it must be purchased from our funds. If we fall short, then we [the households] are willing to contribute and cover the deficit.”
Q5: “Since not enough money is collected from houses we are thinking about a late fee and disconnection after six months. This may encourage people to pay on time. We will discuss this in the next meetings and decide”
Effective governance Local ownership Q6:“Few months ago we found that the person collecting payments did not deposit the money for six months. We called Gram Oorja to report the issue and get help, but they said it was our problem. So, we met as a village and decided to remove this person from the committee.”
VEC report on governance Q7: “After different attempts, we decided that roles should rotate between all VEC members each month, who will collect money, who will clean the panels etc. We rotate because then everybody knows how to do it.”
Local ownership/VEC report on governance/regularity of meetings Q8: “Meetings are held every two weeks. We go to each household and tell them a day in advance about the meeting. Everybody raises topics for discussion. We look at the funds collected and note down in the register after which the treasurer is responsible for depositing the money in the bank.”
Community participation Participation in meetings Q9: “The foundation on which the meter is mounted has broken. So we discussed that we should use the money from our bank reserves to fix this problem. Everybody in the meeting agreed.
Inclusion Q10: “We do not go to meetings. Mainly men go there and discuss”
User satisfaction Satisfaction with public lights Q11: “I used to go to visit other woman in the village in the evening but now that lighting outside is not available, so I do not go”
Household well-being Safety Q12: “I can sleep much better at night. With electricity I can check if my baby is sleeping safe next to me and I can calm her down when she wakes up and fears the darkness”
Environment Local and global Q13: “We do not use kerosene anymore for lighting and only have little amount for emergencies. For cooking we use firewood, see the kitchen wall are all black.”