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Table 6 Probability and conditional and unconditional discrete marginal effects for household’s energy consumption intensity

From: Households’ energy preference and consumption intensity in Kenya

Variables First hurdle Second hurdle
Probability Conditional Unconditional
Electricity
 Location
  Urban 0.2209 0.0067*** 0.0076***
 Gender
  Female − 0.001*** − 0.0223*** − 0.0255*
 Decision maker on energy consumption
  Spouse − 0.0210*** − 0.0081*** − 0.0092***
  Child − 0.0280*** 0.0113*** 0.0128
 Dwelling unit
  Semi-permanent − 0.1608*** − 0.0234*** − 0.0269**
  Temporary − 0.1575*** − 0.0283*** − 0.0327
 Average monthly income (KSh)
  2501–5000 0.0550*** 0.0989981*** 0.1169991
  5001–10,000 0.1013** 0.0788541*** 0.0941023*
  10,001–15,000 0.1634* 0.0674013*** 0.0808989*
  15,001–20,000 0.2028 0.0539039*** 0.0651523*
  20,001–50,000 0.2422 0.0885763*** 0.1052032
  50,001–100,000 0.33225* 0.093369*** 0.1106408
  100,001 and above 0.2535 0.2025687** 0.02295856**
 Education level
  Primary school 0.0445*** − 0.0212*** − 0.0245**
  Secondary school 0.0977* − 0.0212*** − 0.0245**
  Vocational/diploma 0.1667 − 0.0051*** − 0.0058
  Bachelor’s degree 0.2285 0.0421*** 0.0474**
  Postgraduate level 0.0455*** 0.0744*** 0.2367*
 Age of HHH (years)
  31–35 0.01250*** − 0.0362*** − 0.04158**
  36–40 − 0.0108*** − 0.0310*** − 0.0355**
  41–45 − 0.0096*** − 0.0110*** − 0.0126**
  46–50 − 0.0418*** − 0.0050*** − 0.0057***
  51–60 − 0.0147*** 0.0028*** 0.0031***
  61 and above 0.0203*** − 0.0200*** − 0.0228**
 Marital status
  Married − 0.0192*** − 0.0781*** − 0.0876***
  Widowed 0.0008*** − 0.0837*** − 0.0940***
  Divorced − 0.0462*** − 0.0323*** − 0.0356**
LPG
 Location
  Urban 0.2209 − 0.0286 0.0005***
 Gender
  Female − 0.0206*** − 0.0295 − 0.0005***
 Decision maker on energy consumption
  Spouse − 0.0206*** 0.0121*** 0.0132**
  Child − 0.0282*** 0.0147*** 0.0389**
 Dwelling unit
  Semi-permanent − 0.1608*** − 0.0092*** 0.0121**
  Temporary − 0.1575*** 0.0240*** 0.0160
 Average monthly income (KSh)
  2501–5000 0.0418*** 0.0068*** 0.0078***
  5001–10,000 0.0392** 0.1030*** 0.1129
  10,001–15,000 0.0399 0.1086*** 0.1189
  15,001–20,000 0.0408 0.0617*** 0.0687*
  20,001–50,000 0.0412 0.0576*** 0.0643*
  50,001–100,000 0.0510 0.0345*** 0.038**
  100, 001 and above 0.0793* 0.0422*** 0.0121**
 Education level
  Primary school 0.0309*** 0.0238 0.0262**
  Secondary school 0.0309** 0.0271 0.0298**
  Vocational/diploma 0.0334 0.0173 0.0191
  Bachelor’s degree 0.0431 0.0403 0.0441**
  Postgraduate level 0.1347*** 0.1969* 0.2071**
 Age of HHH (years)
  31–35 0.0192*** 0.0444*** 0.0476**
  36–40 0.0206*** − 0.0269*** − 0.0296**
  41–45 0.0223*** − 0.0260*** − 0.0286**
  46–50 0.0232*** − 0.0001*** − 0.001***
  51–60 0.0240** − 0.0332*** − 0.0367**
  61 and above 0.0341*** − 0.0135*** − 0.0148**
 Marital status
  Married 0.0200*** − 0.058*** − 0.0633***
  Widowed 0.0312*** − 0.0640*** − 0.0691*
  Divorced 0.0817*** − 0.0631*** − 0.0680*
Kerosene
 Location
  Urban 0.1090 − 0.0616*** − 0.0827319*
 Gender
  Female 0.0213704*** − 0.0246*** − 0.0330867**
 Decision maker on energy consumption
  Spouse − 0.0158 0.0080*** 0.010**
  Child − 0.0577 − 0.0055*** − 0.0073
 Dwelling unit
  Semi-permanent − 0.0990 0.0262*** 0.0359**
  Temporary − 0.0795 0.0841** 0.1138
 Average monthly income (KSh)
  2501–5000 − 0.0516*** 0.015*** − 0.0206**
  5001–10,000 − 0.0004*** − 0.0433*** − 0.0599**
  10,001–15,000 0.0349*** − 0.0688*** − 0.0948**
  15,001–20,000 0.0628*** − 0.0946*** 0.0687*
  20,001–50,000 0.1263*** − 0.1228*** 0.0643*
  50,001–100,000 0.3028** − 0.2729*** 0.0389**
  100,001 and above 0.3746 − 0.1229*** 0.0121**
 Education level
  Primary school 0.0378*** 0.0039*** 0.0262**
  Secondary school 0.1182* − 0.0182*** 0.029**
  Vocational/diploma 0.1816 − 0.0189*** 0.0191
  Bachelor’s degree 0.2439 − 0.0603*** 0.0441**
  Postgraduate level 0.1038*** − 0.1349*** 0.2071
 Age of HHH (years)
  31–35 0.0158*** − 0.0435*** − 0.0585***
  36–40 − 0.0154*** − 0.0451*** − 0.0606**
  41–45 − 0.035*** − 0.0326*** − 0.0439**
  46–50 − 0.0312*** − 0.0330*** − 0.0444**
  51–60 − 0.00*** − 0.0556*** − 0.0748**
  61 and above 0.0261*** − 0.0720*** − 0.0968**
 Marital status
  Married − 0.0260*** − 0.0387*** − 0.0520**
   Widowed − 0.0025*** − 0.0318*** − 0.0427**
  Divorced − 0.0962*** − 0.0400*** − 0.0265**
Charcoal
 Location
  Urban 0.1135* − 0.0249*** − 0.0292**
 Gender
  Female 0.0427* − 0.0176*** − 0.0203**
 Decision maker on energy consumption
  Spouse 0.02073** 0.0248*** 0.0291**
  Child 0.0609*** 0.0038*** 0.0045
 Dwelling unit
  Semi-permanent − 0.0753*** 0.0138*** 0.0161**
  Temporary − 0.1262*** 0.0215*** 0.0251
 Average monthly income (KSh)
  2501–5000 0.0016*** 0.0048*** 0.0053***
  5001–10,000 0.1003** − 0.0222*** − 0.0249**
  10,001–15,000 0.1300** − 0.0713*** − 0.0814**
  15,001–20,000 0.1601* − 0.0744*** − 0.0851***
  20,001–50,000 0.1425** − 0.0968*** − 0.1118***
  50,001–100,000 0.1486** − 0.1786*** − 0.2151***
  100,001 and above 0.1911* − 0.2432*** − 0.2855***
 Education level
  Primary school 0.1773 − 0.0394*** − 0.0451**
  Secondary school 0.1948 − 0.0391*** − 0.0451**
  Vocational/diploma 0.13022* − 0.0677*** − 0.0784***
  Bachelor’s degree 0.0364*** − 0.091*** − 0.1069***
  Postgraduate level 0.04518** − 0.1342*** − 0.1602***
 Age of HHH (years)
  31–35 − 0.0112*** 0.0333*** 0.0383**
  36–40 0.0416*** − 0.0004*** − 0.0005
  41–45 0.0399*** − 0.0073*** − 0.0085***
  46–50 0.0354*** − 0.0244*** − 0.0288**
  51–60 0.0699*** − 0.0333*** − 0.0008**
  61 and above 0.0180*** − 0.0507*** − 0.0604**
 Marital status
  Married 0.1221* − 0.0069*** − 0.0081***
  Widowed 0.0953** − 0.0276*** − 0.0325**
  Divorced 0.0232*** − 0.0225*** − 0.0265**
Wood fuel
 Location
  Urban − 0.2889** − 0.0249*** − 0.0117**
 Gender
  Female 0.0502** 0.0173*** 0.0242*
 Decision maker on energy consumption
  Spouse − 0.0352*** 0.0248*** 0.0104**
  Child 0.03543** 0.0038*** − 0.0569**
 Dwelling unit
  Semi-permanent 0.127308* 0.0138072*** 0.078***
  Temporary 0.0294456*** 0.0215289*** 0.1110***
 Average monthly income (KSh)
  2501–5000 − 0.0015*** 0.004*** 0.0386**
  5001–10,000 0.0303*** − 0.0222*** 0.026**
  10,001–15,000 0.0515*** − 0.0713*** 0.0485**
  15,001–20,000 0.0526** − 0.0744*** 0.0172**
  20,001–50,000 0.0486*** − 0.0968*** 0.0516**
  50,001–100,000 0.0627*** − 0.178*** − 0.030**
  100,001 and above − 0.0761*** − 0.2432*** − 0.1220
 Education level
  Primary school − 0.0244*** − 0.0394*** − 0.1460***
  Secondary school − 0.0342*** − 0.0394*** − 0.1593***
  Vocational/diploma − 0.0733*** − 0.0677*** − 0.1696**
  Bachelor’s degree − 0.173*** − 0.0914*** − 0.033***
  Postgraduate level − 0.1367*** − 0.1342*** − 0.0129**
 Age of HHH (years)
  31–35 0.0032*** 0.0333*** − 0.0087***
  36–40 0.0518*** − 0.0004*** − 0.000***
  41–45 0.0798** − 0.0073*** 0.0076**
  46–50 0.1106** − 0.0244*** 0.010**
  51–60 0.1384* − 0.0331*** − 0.0141**
  61 and above 0.1573* − 0.0507*** 0.0158**
 Marital status
  Married 0.0938** − 0.0069*** − 0.0065***
  Widowed 0.0796* − 0.0276*** − 0.020**
  Divorced 0.1241* − 0.0225*** 0.1667
  1. ***p value < 0.01, **p value < 0.05, *p value < 0.10 Excluded reference categories: rural, male household head, permanent, below 2500, no formal education, below 30 years, and single