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Table 5 Summary of arguments for the use of substrates from de-weeding operations

From: Biogas production from submerged macrophytes—a case study of regional biomass potentials in Germany

Supporting factors
 Nutrient contents of the substrates are comparably high [12, 13]
 Storage and ensiling well possible under certain conditions [10, 11]
 Substrates are essentially disposed of today Based on our survey
 Regionally, large quantities of the substrates are harvested (e.g., Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) Based on our survey
 Biogas yields are high in combination with other substrates [13]
 In the flowing and standing water bodies there are high quantities that were not harvested Based on our survey
Inhibitory factors
 The amount of harvested biomass can vary from year to year Based on our survey
 The costs of mowing and harvesting are quite high [26]
 Legal status of substrates from de-weeding operations is not clear, especially whether they are renewable resources [27]
 In semi-natural or natural water bodies, conflicts with nature conservation can occur Based on our survey
 The use of the substrates can endanger the approval of biogas plant [27]
 Cost efficiency also depends on the development of new machines for mowing and harvesting [26]