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Table 1 Sample of studies reviewed [8, 12,13,14,15,16, 34, 44, 52, 54, 63, 72]

From: How and to which extent can the gas sector contribute to a climate-neutral European energy system? A qualitative approach

Title Author Year Geographic scope Sector(s) covered Main conclusions Ref.
Gas for Climate — How gas can help to achieve the Paris Agreement in an affordable way van Melle, et al. 2018 EU Buildings, electricity, industry, heavy duty transport - Renewable gas production capacity in the EU can reach a significant level by 2050.
- A future energy system including renewable gas shows substantial cost savings compared to a system without renewable gas.
Decarbonization Pathways Eurelectric 2018 EU Buildings, electricity, industry, transport - A future energy system characterized by strong direct electrification (up to 60% of total demand), energy efficiency and further non-emitting allows to reach 95% GHGE by 2050.
- Despite a limited role of biomethane, particularly synthetic renewable gas plays a significant role (indirect electrification).
A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050? Bouré et al. 2018 France Buildings, industry, transport - Renewable gas (combination of biomethane and synthetic methane) could fully reduce natural gas by 2050.
- The projected production costs for renewable gas are comparable to those for renewable electricity generation within a 100% renewable electricity scenario.
Energiemarkt 2030 und 2050—Der Beitrag von Gas- und Wärmeinfrastruktur zu einer effizienten CO2-Minderung
(Energy market 2030 and 2050—The contribution of gas an heat infrastructure to an efficient CO2 reduction; authors’ translation)
Hecking et al. 2017 Germany Heat, electricity, industry, transport - A future energy system which still comprises gas and heat infrastructure shows substantial cost savings compared to a system focused on electrification and allows adjusting to technological developments more flexibly.
- A significant part of the renewable gas required for such an energy system design will be imported from outside the EU.
Der Wert der Gasinfrastruktur für die Energiewende in Deutschland—Eine modellbasierte Analyze
(The value of German gas infrastructure — A model-based analysis; authors’ translation)
Bothe et al. 2017 Germany Buildings, industry, transport - A future energy system with volatile renewables as predominant energy source relies heavily on gas storage to balance supply and demand.
- The additional use of the gas infrastructure to transport renewable energy in gaseous form to end-users shows major benefits and cost savings compared to an electricity-focused system.
Green Gas Potential in ONTRAS Network Area nymoen|strategieberatung 2017 Germany (regional) Buildings, electricity, industry, transport - A future energy system design strongly based on synthetic methane produced from wind energy via power-to-gas shows costs similar to a system design oriented toward electrification.
- Beyond that, the gas-based design scenario shows various cost upsides and qualitative benefits.
Riesiges Potential an grünem Gas (Huge potential of green gas; authors’ translation) Papp et al. 2017 Austria Buildings - Renewable gas production capacity in Austria (predominantly for biomethane) can be expanded to a level that allows complete substitution of natural gas in the residential sector by 2050.
- This avoids stranding of gas assets and ensures end-user gas prices that remain competitive with alternative heating technologies while being fully climate-neutral.
Kalte Dunkelflaute — Robustheit des Stromsystems bei Extremwetter
(Dark doldrum — Robustness of the electricity system during extreme weather; authors’ translation)
Huneke et al. 2017 Germany Electricity - Gas storage can be combined with power-to-gas to provide an energy system with high security of supply even in extreme situations, while the costs for society would remain adequate. [72]
Klimaschutz durch Sektorkopplung - Optionen, Szenarien, Kosten
(Climate protection trough sector coupling — Options, scenarios, costs; authors’ translation)
Ecke et al. 2017 Germany Heat, electricity - The transition to a future energy system should take a technology-neutral approach to limit lock-in effects.
- The gas sector has the potential to contribute as a major flexibility source and to enable cost savings compared to an energy system design without renewable gas and gas infrastructure.
Erneuerbare Gase — Ein Systemupdate der Energiewende
(Renewable gases — updating energy transition; authors’ translation)
Klein et al. 2017 Germany Heat, industry, feedstock, transport, electricity - The achievement of the 2050 climate targets is only possible with a future energy system design that includes the gas infrastructure and a significant level of renewable gas.
- This will also realize substantial cost savings compared to a scenario without a significant role of the gas sector.
The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands van Wijk 2017 Netherlands(regional) Industry, feedstock, transport - The currently widely natural gas based large-scale chemical industry cluster in the Northern Netherlands shall be transformed to a hydrogen economy by around 2030.
- This is based on a massive development of especially wind and power-to-gas capacity and retrofitting natural gas pipelines to transport pure hydrogen.
H21 — Leeds City Gate Sadler et al. 2016 UK
Heat, industry - The gas distribution system in the city area of Leeds (approx. 6 TWh annual consumption) shall be converted to 100% hydrogen over a three-year period.
- Hydrogen is produced through traditional steam methane reforming of natural gas delivered as usual through the transmission system.
- The carbon dioxide is sequestrated deep under the North Sea.