Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample of studies reviewed [8, 12,13,14,15,16, 34, 44, 52, 54, 63, 72]

From: How and to which extent can the gas sector contribute to a climate-neutral European energy system? A qualitative approach

Title Author Year Geographic scope Sector(s) covered Main conclusions Ref.
Gas for Climate — How gas can help to achieve the Paris Agreement in an affordable way van Melle, et al. 2018 EU Buildings, electricity, industry, heavy duty transport - Renewable gas production capacity in the EU can reach a significant level by 2050.
- A future energy system including renewable gas shows substantial cost savings compared to a system without renewable gas.
[12]
Decarbonization Pathways Eurelectric 2018 EU Buildings, electricity, industry, transport - A future energy system characterized by strong direct electrification (up to 60% of total demand), energy efficiency and further non-emitting allows to reach 95% GHGE by 2050.
- Despite a limited role of biomethane, particularly synthetic renewable gas plays a significant role (indirect electrification).
[34]
A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050? Bouré et al. 2018 France Buildings, industry, transport - Renewable gas (combination of biomethane and synthetic methane) could fully reduce natural gas by 2050.
- The projected production costs for renewable gas are comparable to those for renewable electricity generation within a 100% renewable electricity scenario.
[13]
Energiemarkt 2030 und 2050—Der Beitrag von Gas- und Wärmeinfrastruktur zu einer effizienten CO2-Minderung
(Energy market 2030 and 2050—The contribution of gas an heat infrastructure to an efficient CO2 reduction; authors’ translation)
Hecking et al. 2017 Germany Heat, electricity, industry, transport - A future energy system which still comprises gas and heat infrastructure shows substantial cost savings compared to a system focused on electrification and allows adjusting to technological developments more flexibly.
- A significant part of the renewable gas required for such an energy system design will be imported from outside the EU.
[14]
Der Wert der Gasinfrastruktur für die Energiewende in Deutschland—Eine modellbasierte Analyze
(The value of German gas infrastructure — A model-based analysis; authors’ translation)
Bothe et al. 2017 Germany Buildings, industry, transport - A future energy system with volatile renewables as predominant energy source relies heavily on gas storage to balance supply and demand.
- The additional use of the gas infrastructure to transport renewable energy in gaseous form to end-users shows major benefits and cost savings compared to an electricity-focused system.
[15]
Green Gas Potential in ONTRAS Network Area nymoen|strategieberatung 2017 Germany (regional) Buildings, electricity, industry, transport - A future energy system design strongly based on synthetic methane produced from wind energy via power-to-gas shows costs similar to a system design oriented toward electrification.
- Beyond that, the gas-based design scenario shows various cost upsides and qualitative benefits.
[44]
Riesiges Potential an grünem Gas (Huge potential of green gas; authors’ translation) Papp et al. 2017 Austria Buildings - Renewable gas production capacity in Austria (predominantly for biomethane) can be expanded to a level that allows complete substitution of natural gas in the residential sector by 2050.
- This avoids stranding of gas assets and ensures end-user gas prices that remain competitive with alternative heating technologies while being fully climate-neutral.
[8]
Kalte Dunkelflaute — Robustheit des Stromsystems bei Extremwetter
(Dark doldrum — Robustness of the electricity system during extreme weather; authors’ translation)
Huneke et al. 2017 Germany Electricity - Gas storage can be combined with power-to-gas to provide an energy system with high security of supply even in extreme situations, while the costs for society would remain adequate. [72]
Klimaschutz durch Sektorkopplung - Optionen, Szenarien, Kosten
(Climate protection trough sector coupling — Options, scenarios, costs; authors’ translation)
Ecke et al. 2017 Germany Heat, electricity - The transition to a future energy system should take a technology-neutral approach to limit lock-in effects.
- The gas sector has the potential to contribute as a major flexibility source and to enable cost savings compared to an energy system design without renewable gas and gas infrastructure.
[63]
Erneuerbare Gase — Ein Systemupdate der Energiewende
(Renewable gases — updating energy transition; authors’ translation)
Klein et al. 2017 Germany Heat, industry, feedstock, transport, electricity - The achievement of the 2050 climate targets is only possible with a future energy system design that includes the gas infrastructure and a significant level of renewable gas.
- This will also realize substantial cost savings compared to a scenario without a significant role of the gas sector.
[16]
The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands van Wijk 2017 Netherlands(regional) Industry, feedstock, transport - The currently widely natural gas based large-scale chemical industry cluster in the Northern Netherlands shall be transformed to a hydrogen economy by around 2030.
- This is based on a massive development of especially wind and power-to-gas capacity and retrofitting natural gas pipelines to transport pure hydrogen.
[52]
H21 — Leeds City Gate Sadler et al. 2016 UK
(regional)
Heat, industry - The gas distribution system in the city area of Leeds (approx. 6 TWh annual consumption) shall be converted to 100% hydrogen over a three-year period.
- Hydrogen is produced through traditional steam methane reforming of natural gas delivered as usual through the transmission system.
- The carbon dioxide is sequestrated deep under the North Sea.
[54]