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Table 2 Cost effectiveness of transport system

From: Maximizing social benefit from finite energy resource allocation

Fuel^PriceUnitEnergy usedUnitsMJ/unitUnitMJ/100 km$/100 km
Ethanol$0.79Liter14.2Liters/100 km80Liter1132$11.23
Gasoline$0.81Liter9.3Liters/100 km122Liter1132$7.57
Electric$0.18kWh20.5kWh/100 km4kWh74$3.76
  1. This analysis does not include any price premium to purchase/maintain an electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engines
  2. ^EIA indicated that gasoline and electric include taxes. It is unclear if ethanol price reflects taxes. None of these prices reflect the subsidies for any processes inherent in any pathway. Gasoline and electric prices were average residential prices in NYS from 2008 to 2018 [36, 37], while the ethanol price from NYSERDA Biomass Roadmap [23]