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Table 1 Results of ADF and PP analyses

From: Analyzing long-term empirical interactions between renewable energy generation, energy use, human capital, and economic performance in Pakistan

VariablesADF test (statistics)PP test (statistics)Tr./Fd.Unit rootADF-GLS
τ-statisticsADF-GLS critical value (5%)
EGR2.734P = 0.4335.673P = 0.761NoneYes− 2.713− 2.996
EUA− 1.122P = 0.3910.015P = 0.153Tr. + Fd.Yes− 2.510− 2.744
EP− 3.249P = 0.1273.805P = 0.368Fd.Yes− 2.119− 2.913
HCIN5.347P = 0.8492.654P = 0.294Fd.Yes− 2.885− 3.185
ΔEGR− 2.950P = 0.035− 3.930P = 0.050NoneNo− 2.947− 2.270
ΔEUA− 2.509P = 0.005− 4.667P = 0.003Tr. + Fd.No− 3.125− 3.002
ΔEP− 6.623P = 0.018− 6.043P = 0.005FdNo− 2.983− 2.316
ΔHCIN− 5.665P = 0.036− 3.823P = 0.020Tr. + Fd.No− 2.722− 2.601
  1. If p value > 0.05, then do not reject the null hypothesis of unit root
  2. EGR renewable energy generation, EUA aggregated energy use, EP economic performance, HCIN human capital index, ADF augmented Dickey-Fuller test, PP Phillips-Perron test, GLS generalized least square, Δ a first-order difference of variables, Tr. trend, Fd. fixed, τ ADF-GLS test values, P probability value