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Table 2 Results of KPSS analysis

From: Analyzing long-term empirical interactions between renewable energy generation, energy use, human capital, and economic performance in Pakistan

VariablesLM (statistic)Fd.-Tr.KPSS critical value (5%)Unit root
EGR0.143Fd.-Tr.0.135Yes
EUA0.145Fd.-Tr.0.135Yes
EP0.239Fd.-Tr.0.135Yes
HCIN0.194Fd.-Tr.0.135Yes
ΔEGR0.067Fd.-Tr.0.135No
ΔEUA− 0.003Fd.-Tr.0.135No
ΔEP0.119Fd.-Tr.0.135No
ΔHCIN0.085Fd.-Tr.0.135No
  1. KPSS Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, LM Lagrange multiplier, Tr. trend, Fd. fixed, EGR renewable energy generation, EUA aggregated energy use, EP economic performance, HCIN human capital index