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Table 3 The results of the Ng-Perron unit root test

From: Analyzing long-term empirical interactions between renewable energy generation, energy use, human capital, and economic performance in Pakistan

VariablesConstantConstant +trendNo (constant +trend)
MZαMZtMSBMPTMZαMZtMSBMPTMZαMZtMSNMPT
EGR (1)*− 1.194− 0.8080.8607.054− 4.016− 1.2320.4818.629− 3.031− 0.2470.5189.614
EUA (1)*− 0.851− 0.2510.7115.361− 0.908− 0.9460.5437.175− 0.076− 0.0380.5808.160
EP (1)*− 1.078− 0.0140.5225.698− 16.122− 1.6650.2166.739− 15.137− 0.6800.2547.724
HCIN (1)*− 3.945− 0.2950.9838.293− 2.345− 1.1380.6719.139− 1.360− 0.1530.70810.124
ΔEGR (0)*− 9.121− 2.4060.1733.793− 23.942− 2.5420.1794.655− 22.957− 1.5570.2175.640
ΔEUA (0)*− 13.911− 1.5660.2093.279− 37.600− 3.3860.1513.456− 36.615− 2.4010.1884.441
ΔEP (0)*− 13.689− 1.7130.2212.692− 19.023− 2.1770.1955.539− 18.038− 1.1920.2336.524
ΔHCIN (0)*− 10.156− 0.9990.1531.862− 27.775− 6.3340.0832.449− 26.790− 5.3490.1213.434
Ng-Perron critical value 5%− 7.115− 0.9950.2704.155− 16.315− 1.9250.2056.465− 15.330− 0.9400.2437.450
  1. MZα modified version of the Phillips (1987) Zα test, MZt modified version of the Phillips-Perron (1988) Zt test, MSB the Perron and Ng (1996) spectral density test, Modified MPT modified feasible point optimal test, EGR renewable energy generation, EUA aggregated energy use, EP economic performance, HCIN human capital index