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Table 1 Definitions of the elements of the IAD framework extended by social learning

From: Understanding the role of values in institutional change: the case of the energy transition

Framework elementDefinitionSource
Biophysical/Material ConditionsPhysical environment influencing possible actions taken in action situations, e.g., existing infrastructureMcGinnis [14]
Attributes of CommunitySocio-economic characteristics of the participants’ communityOstrom et al. [21]
RulesInstitutions, e.g., formal laws and regulations that enable and constrain behavior of participantsOstrom [3]
Action SituationSocial space of interaction, in which participants decide on their individual actions given the information they have about how those actions lead to outcomes and the costs and benefits associated with those actions and outcomesMcGinnis [14]
ParticipantsIndividual actors or actor groups, e.g., governmental and non-governmental bodies or firmsOstrom [13]
InteractionsProcedural aspects, i.e., interaction among participants in an action situationOstrom et al. [21]
OutcomesResults of interactions, which may be institutions, knowledge, or operational outcomes such as the implementation of new technologiesPahl-Wostl et al. [23]
Evaluative CriteriaCriteria that are used to assess interactions and outcomes, e.g., sustainability, distributional equity, economic efficiencyOstrom [13]
Feedback and learning processesImpact of actors’ evaluations of interaction patterns and outcomes on action situation and exogenous variablesMcGinnis [14]
Single loop learningProcess leading to an incremental adjustment of patterns of interactions within one policy processDiduck et al. [34]
Double loop learningProcess leading to change of principles that underlie future action situations, e.g., procedural aspects of decision-makingDiduck et al. [34]
Triple loop learningProcess leading to changes in the existing exogenous variablesArmitage et al. [26]