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Table 2 Definition of explanatory variables supposed to determine the adoption of biogas technology, and their presumed signs in association with dependent variables

From: Determinants of biogas technology adoption in southern Ethiopia

VariableTypeDescriptionExpected sign
Sex (Sexhhh)CategoricalSex of household head: male = 1; female = 0±
Age (Agehhh)ContinuousAge of the household head in years±
Education (Educhhh)ContinuousHousehold head’s educational level in years of schooling+
Household size (Sizehh)ContinuousTotal number of people in the household±
Head of cattle (Catthds)ContinuousHousehold’s total number of cattle in cow equivalenta+
Total income (Tincomhh)ContinuousTotal annual income of the household in Birrb+
Access to credit (Accredit)CategoricalHaving access to credit = 1; otherwise = 0+
Farmland size (Sizfarmh)ContinuousHousehold’s total farmland owned in hectare (ha)+
Number of planted Trees (Numplant)ContinuousHousehold’s total number of planted trees±
Distance to firewood source (Distwood)ContinuousWalking distance of the major fuelwood source from home (min)+
Distance to water source (Distwatr)ContinuousWalking distance to the major water source from home (min)
Adequacy of available water (Suffwatr)CategoricalHaving adequate water source = 1; otherwise = 0+
Distance to market (Distmrkt)ContinuousWalking distance of the market from home (min)
Perception to use & mgt (Indivperc)CategoricalHaving perception resisting biogas technology = 1; otherwise = 0
Access to electricity (Accelect)CategoricalHaving electricity connection = 1; otherwise = 0
Electronic media (Elemedia)CategoricalHaving radio and/or television = 1; otherwise = 0+
  1. aHead of cattle ownership was measured in cow equivalent where, cow = 1; ox = 1.25 cow equivalent; bull = 1.25 cow equivalent; immature male = 0.75 cow equivalent; heifer = 0.63 cow equivalent; and calf = 0.25 cow equivalent [20].
  2. bBirr is a basic monetary unit in Ethiopia (1 USD is equivalent to 23.37 Ethiopian Birr in May 2017)