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Table 4 Institutional contexts for energy cooperatives in Germany and Switzerland

From: How municipalities support energy cooperatives: survey results from Germany and Switzerland

 GermanySwitzerland
RE support policies• Feed-in tariff: EEG 2000, 2004, 2009, 2012, 2014, 2016/2017• MKF (2005)
• Capped feed-in tariff: KEV (2009)
• One-off inv. grants (2014)
Electricity market regulation• High level of liberalization: Competition among electricity retailers, free choice of electricity suppliers for customers, unbundled generation, regulated transmission grids operated by four regional operators• Low level of liberalization: Limited competition among electricity retailers and limited choice of electricity suppliers for customers (area monopolies for small consumers (< 100 MWh))
Municipalities in the federal system• Lowest administrative level
• High degree of local autonomy with limited financial autonomy
• Own municipal energy policies
• Lowest administrative level
• High degree of local autonomy with extensive financial autonomy
• Own municipal energy policies
Cooperative law and tradition• Cooperative law (2006)
• Pronounced cooperative tradition (housing, retail trade, energy)
• Swiss Code of Obligations
• Pronounced cooperative tradition (housing, retail trade, energy)