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Table 13 Indicators for benchmarking cities [37]

From: Sustainability indices for energy utilization using a multi-criteria decision model

Theme Scope of analysis Sample Reference
Energy and/or CO2 emissions Frequency analysis of energy data CoM signatory cities Kona et al. [68]
  Energy consumption 198 local units in the UK Keirstead [69]
  Carbon footprints 12 metropolitan cities Sovacool and Brown [70]
  CO2 emissions Nanjing (China) Bi et al. [71]
  Carbon footprint 21 cities (Guangdong China) Yajie et al. [72]
  Carbon metabolism Beijing (China) Zhang et al. [73]
  CO2 targets and measures 8 low carbon cities (China) Khanna et al. [74]
  Scope of climate target setting 8 European cities Kramers et al. [75]
Transport Transport systems 23 European cities Alonso et al. [76]
  ICT usage in transport 26 major world cities Debnath et al. [77]
  Sustainable transport Curitiba (Brazil) Miranda et al. [78]
Waste Waste management 3 cities (world) Zaman and Lehmann [79]
  Urban waste management 14 Greek municipalities Karagiannidis et al. [80]
  Sustainable waste management 5 cities (world) Wilson et al. [81]
Water Water treatment options Ningbo (China) Wu et al. [82]
Energy-water-carbon nexus Urban water systems 4 European cities Venkatesh et al. [83]
Socio-economic power Socio-economic power 35 major world cities Arribas-Bel et al. [84]
Multidisciplinary (sustainability) Locally integrated energy sectors Ormoz Municipality (Slovenia) Kostevšek et al. [34]
  Low-carbon eco-cities Not applied to any city Zhou et al. [33]
  Environment social economic pillars Island energy structure Afgan et al. [85]
  Green cities (limited energy focus) Various cities (world) Siemens (
  Environment and quality of life Australian cities Trigg et al. [32]
  Energy scenarios with SDEWES Index 22 Mediterranean port cities Kılkış [37]