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Table 1 The 3E nexus found for various countries, 2010–2018

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

Pao and Tsai [50]CO2, EC, GDPBRIC countries1971–2005VECM; VAR- Bidirectional strong Granger causality between EC and CO2 output
- Bidirectional mild long-run relationship between EC and GDP
- Causality running from EC to GDP in the short-run
- Strong negative causality running from CO2 output to GDP
Wang et al. [10]CO2, EC, GDP28 Provinces in the People’s Republic of China1995–2007Panel cointegration; panel VECM- Bidirectional causality between CO2 and EC, also between EC and GDP
- EC and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO2 emissions
- CO2 emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for EC
Wang et al. [51]GDP, EC, CO2People’s Republic of China1978–2012Linear and nonlinear causality- Linear and nonlinear unidirectional causality from CO2 emissions to GDP
- Linear and nonlinear bidirectional causality between EC and CO2 emissions
- Unidirectional linear causality from EC to GDP
- Nonlinear unidirectional causality from GDP to EC
Magazzino [52]GDP, EC, CO2South Caucasus and Turkey1992–2013Panel VAR- CO2 has a negative effect on energy use
- Real GDP has no effect on energy use
- Energy use has no effect on real GDP
Chen et al. [8]CO2, EC, GDP188 countries1993–2010Panel cointegration; VECM- Long-run relationships between GDP, EC, and CO2 for all countries
- EC negatively affects GDP in the world as a whole and developing countries, but not in developed countries
- Unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 exists both on developing and developed countries
Magazzino [53]GDP, EC, CO219 APEC countries1960–2013Panel VAR- No long-run relationship between GDP, EC and CO2
- No causal relationship between real GDP and energy use
- Causal relationship exist between GDP and energy in 9 countries
Mirza and Kanwal [54]GDP, EC, CO2Pakistan1971–2009ARDL; VECM- Short-run, long-run, and strong Granger causality results indicate bidirectional causalities among EC, GDP, and CO2 emissions
Doğan [15]CO2, FD, EC, GDPE7 countries1990–2014Panel cointegration- No long-term relationship between CO2 emissions and FD
- Positive effect of EC on CO2 emissions
- Positive effect of economic growth on CO2 emissions in long-term
Pao and Chen [21]CO2 EC, GDPG201991–2016Panel cointegration- Long-run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions, consumption of fossil fuels, GDP, and clean energy consumption
  1. Note: ARDL autoregressive distributed lag procedure, EC energy consumption, FD financial development, VAR Vector Autoregressive Model, VECM Vector Error Correction Model