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Table 3 Univariate unit root tests

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

CountriesVariablesAt levelAt first difference
ADFDF-GLSPPKPSSADFDF-GLSPPKPSS
BrazilLGDP− 3.3939 (0)*− 1.8728 (0)− 3.3855 (3)*0.8022 (3)***− 4.7558 (0)***− 2.2785 (1)**− 4.7003 (2)***0.2139 (0)
LEC− 1.6069 (0)− 1.5446 (0)− 2.0561 (3)0.1540 (3)**− 5.5424 (0)***− 5.4056 (0)***− 5.5424 (0)***0.1317 (2)
LCO2− 2.1627 (2)− 2.5969 (2)− 2.2599 (3)0.1193 (3)*− 4.7184 (0)***− 2.6677 (1)***− 4.7184 (0)***0.0974 (3)
IndiaLGDP− 1.3653 (0)− 0.5646 (0)− 1.3299 (3)0.2185 (2)***− 7.9501 (0)***− 3.7990 (0)***− 7.9501 (0)***0.0410 (3)
LEC− 0.2063 (0)− 1.3863 (3)− 0.3839 (3)0.1728 (3)**− 6.1489 (0)***− 4.2217 (0)***− 6.2067 (3)***0.0811 (3)
LCO2− 1.8144 (0)− 1.7373 (0)− 2.0078 (3)0.8395 (5)***− 6.3012 (0)***− 6.1957 (0)***− 6.3295 (3)***0.2011 (0)
IndonesiaLGDP− 2.5628 (1)− 2.3342 (1)− 2.1648 (1)1.1831 (3)***− 4.8001 (0)***− 4.8759 (0)***− 4.7678 (2)***0.1354 (1)
LEC− 1.2409 (0)− 1.4495 (0)− 1.2409 (0)1.1781 (3)***− 6.6338 (0)***− 6.5387 (0)***− 6.6734 (4)***0.1645 (0)
LCO2− 3.7588 (1)**− 2.3167 (2)− 2.9585 (3)1.4971 (2)***− 6.0189 (1)***− 5.9762 (1)***− 6.0182 (3)***0.2978 (3)
MexicoLGDP− 2.8202 (0)− 1.9435 (0)− 2.8974 (2)0.7749 (2)***− 5.3440 (0)***− 4.6491 (0)***− 5.3012 (3)***0.2574 (0)
LEC− 2.6150 (0)− 1.1455 (0)− 2.5758 (1)0.6575 (3)**− 5.1826 (0)***− 5.1506 (0)***− 5.1826 (0)***0.1108 (1)
LCO2− 2.2049 (0)− 1.4732 (0)− 2.1412 (1)0.5729 (3)**− 7.8209 (0)***− 7.0476 (0)***− 7.7964 (1)***0.0709 (0)
People’s Republic of ChinaLGDP− 3.1892 (1)− 1.5464 (1)− 3.6616 (3)*0.1815 (2)**− 4.3604 (0)***− 4.1830 (0)***− 4.3309 (3)***0.1215 (2)*
LEC− 1.3500 (1)− 1.4611 (1)− 0.8771 (3)0.1855 (3)**− 3.7419 (0)**− 3.8233 (0)***− 3.7255 (1)**0.0819 (3)
LCO2− 2.2675 (1)− 2.3137 (1)− 1.5660 (3)0.1484 (2)**− 3.4145 (0)**− 3.4539 (0)***− 3.4620 (1)**0.1172 (0)
RussiaLGDP− 3.1829 (1)− 2.1944 (1)− 3.4788 (2)0.5752 (3)**− 2.4446 (0)**− 2.2988 (0)**− 2.3641 (1)**0.3231 (2)
LEC− 4.0600 (0)**− 2.5831 (0)− 4.7772 (2)0.1674 (2)**− 3.3568 (0)*− 2.9837 (0)***− 3.3568 (2)*0.3821 (2)*
LCO2− 3.9379 (0)**− 2.5851 (0)− 3.9379 (2)**0.1689 (0)**− 3.3132 (0)*− 2.9842 (0)***− 3.3132 (0)*0.3598 (2)*
TurkeyLGDP− 2.2229 (0)− 2.3089 (0)− 2.3966 (1)0.9429 (2) ***− 4.8594 (3)***− 5.0686 (0)***− 6.8309 (3)***0.0866 (2)
LEC− 2.9710 (0)− 2.4336 (0)− 3.0543 (1)0.9327 (3)***− 6.6989 (0)***− 5.5857 (0)***− 6.7042 (3)***0.1314 (3)
LCO2− 2.9952 (0)− 1.7598 (0)− 2.9864 (3)0.9260 (3)***− 6.6613 (0)***− 4.3947 (0)***− 6.6666 (3)***0.1299 (5)
  1. Note: Asterisks ***, ** and * indicate the 1%, 5% and 10% levels, respectively