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Table 4 Zivot and Andrew unit root tests

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

CountriesVariablesAt levelAt first difference
Intercept (lag) break yearTrend and Intercept (lag) break yearIntercept (lag) break yearTrend and intercept (lag) break year
 LGDP− 4.595 (1) 2007 *− 4.671 (1) 1998− 6.047 (0) 1981***− 6.638 (0) 1984***
BrazilLEC− 3.244 (2) 2007− 4.009 (2) 2000− 6.537 (0) 1980***− 6.778 (0) 1983***
 LCO2− 3.756 (2) 1981− 3.626 (2) 1980− 5.514 (0) 1980***− 6.177 (0) 1984***
 LGDP− 2.818 (0) 1979− 3.133 (0) 1993− 8.054 (0) 1979***− 8.274 (0) 2004***
IndiaLEC− 2.931 (0) 2007− 4.066 (0) 2001− 7.162 (0) 2004***− 7.213 (0) 2006***
 LCO2− 2.505 (0) 1998− 3.532 (0) 2001− 7.014 (0) 1997***− 7.084 (0) 1997***
 LGDP− 8.807 (1) 1998***− 7.589 (1) 1998***− 5.494 (0) 1997***− 6.512 (0) 1998***
IndonesiaLEC− 5.034 (0) 1990**− 5.980 (0) 1990***− 7.357 (0) 1986***− 7.416 (0) 1990***
 LCO2− 4.362 (1) 1998− 4.562 (1) 1982− 6.364 (1) 1980***− 6.524 (1) 1979***
 LGDP− 3.365 (1) 1979− 4.120 (1) 1983− 6.579 (0) 1982***− 6.687 (0) 1982***
MexicoLEC− 4.261 (0) 1978− 4.551 (0) 1978− 6.538 (0) 1982***− 6.642 (0) 1982***
 LCO2− 3.722 (0) 1978− 4.637 (0) 1983− 9.563 (0) 1983***− 9.456 (0) 1983***
 LGDP− 3.666 (1) 2005− 3.374 (1) 1979− 5.008 (0) 1978**− 5.111 (0) 1986**
People’s Republic of ChinaLEC− 4.574 (1) 2003− 4.141 (1) 1997− 4.699 (0) 2002− 5.783 (0) 2003***
 LCO2− 4.114 (1) 2003− 4.651 (1) 1997− 4.454 (0) 2002− 5.235 (0) 2002**
RussiaLGDP− 4.536 (1) 2009− 4.936 (1) 2009*− 4.216 (0) 1999− 4.910 (0) 2000*
LEC− 4.178 (0) 2003− 3.800 (0) 1997− 4.666 (0) 1996***− 5.706 (0) 1999***
LCO2− 4.059 (0) 2003− 3.680 (0) 1997− 4.304 (0) 1996− 4.987 (0) 1999*
 LGDP− 3.209 (0) 1979− 3.459 (0) 2001− 6.510 (0) 2003***− 6.576 (0) 1981***
TurkeyLEC− 4.365 (0) 1979− 4.210 (0) 1986− 6.799 (0) 1978***− 6.940 (0) 1982***
 LCO2− 4.343 (0) 1985− 4.380 (0) 1985− 6.679 (0) 1978***− 6.998 (0) 1981***
  1. Note: Asterisks ***, **, * indicate the 1%, 5% and 10% significance levels, respectively. The numbers in parentheses represent the optimal lag length for Z-A test