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Table 5 Lee and Strazicich LM unit root tests results on first difference

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

CountriesVariablesInterceptTrend and Intercept
Test statistic (lag)TB1TB2Test statistic (lag)TB1TB2
BrazilLGDP− 3.418 (0)*19771979− 7.362 (4)***19781981
LEC− 5.160 (4)***19792006− 7.045 (4)***19791987
LCO2− 5.491 (0)***19781982− 5.883 (0)***19791982
IndiaLGDP− 4.616 (1)***19831987− 8.031 (0)***19771980
LEC− 4.737 (3)***19841994− 6.374 (3)**19972007
LCO2− 4.721 (1)***19962000− 6.797 (0)**19761990
IndonesiaLGDP− 5.646 (0)***19791995− 9.588 (1)***19951999
LEC− 6.212 (0)***19771982− 6.745 (1)**19881994
LCO2− 6.105 (1)***19861999− 6.862 (1)***19862008
MexicoLGDP− 6.483 (0)***19771981− 7.304 (4)***19791987
LEC− 5.077 (0)***19771979− 6.545 (4)**19802000
LCO2− 7.969 (0)***19771980− 9.657 (0)***19771982
People’s Republic of ChinaLGDP− 4.431 (2)***19761988− 5.983 (5)*19862003
LEC− 4.151 (0)***19772009− 7.656 (3)***19882000
LCO2− 3.851 (3)**19931997− 6.330 (3)*19932000
RussiaLGDP− 3.806 (0)**19982007− 11.61 (5)***20032007
LEC− 4.033 (4)**20012007− 6.262 (2)**19972007
LCO2− 4.901 (2)***19972009− 6.772 (2)**19972007
TurkeyLGDP− 5.423 (0)***19771979− 7.521 (4)***19921998
LEC− 6.549 (0)***19772005− 6.887 (0)***19771987
LCO2− 6.576 (0)***19782003− 6.516 (0)**19771985
  1. Note: Asterisks ***, ** and * indicate the 1%, 5% and 10% significance levels, respectively. Numbers in parentheses represent the optimal number of lag terms, break date, test statistics, and critical t values. TB1 and TB2 represent time break 1 and time break 2