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Table 6 Results for bootstrap ARDL cointegration test

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

CountryDependent variable|independent variableF1F1*tt*F2F2*Dummy variablesResult
Brazil(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)3.0873.178− 2.798− 1.5854.4593.287D77, D04,No cointegration
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)1.4512.7470.810− 1.4560.8482.788D77, D97, D07No cointegration
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)5.7384.087− 3.132− 2.7868.5994.913D77, D96, D09Cointegration
India(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)3.4452.760− 0.097− 1.1880.2402.964D88, D98, D07No cointegration
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)7.8204.643− 3.103− 1.1528.9445.918D85, D95, D02, D08Cointegration
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)0.4674.194− 0.399− 2.9170.3145.435D83, D90, D96, D07No cointegration
Indonesia(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)0.5753.210− 1.179− 2.2670.6883.752D79, D90, D06No cointegration
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)3.2383.004− 0.444− 1.9253.9563.272D78, D90, D00Degenerate case #2
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)0.7753.643− 1.065− 2.3101.1514.476D77, D91, D01, D07No cointegration
Mexico(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)4.3092.848− 0.114− 2.0464.4583.071D79, D98Degenerate case #2
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)4.0824.858− 0.561− 3.3060.6806.421D79, D99No cointegration
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)3.2014.625− 2.422− 0.8932.2602.798D78, D01No cointegration
People’s Republic of China(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)0.9343.3711.183− 2.3060.8403.800D84, D94, D05No cointegration
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)5.1552.9651.351− 1.9237.0223.244D77, D87, D94, D03, D09Degenerate case #2
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)2.9733.173− 2.828− 2.2484.4513.669D77, D85, D93, D03, D09No cointegration
Russia(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)1.74413.258− 1.003− 2.6091.6875.368D04, D07No cointegration
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)14.8263.2831.935− 1.67117.6013.131D95, D06Cointegration
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)9.54242.776− 2.579− 1.3268.91921.066D95, D06No cointegration
Turkey(LGDP|LEC|LCO2)1.5373.4141.636− 2.3361.1294.108D75, D90, D05No cointegration
(LEC|LCO2|LGDP)0.9393.657− 1.555− 2.4981.2894.592D73, D87, D96, D06No cointegration
(LCO2|LGDP|LEC)1.4393.9501.487− 0.3722.0244.933D72, D86, D95, D05No cointegration
  1. Note: F1 is the F statistic for the coefficients of y (− 1), x1 (− 1), and x2 (− 1). F2 is the F statistic for the coefficients of x1 (− 1) and x2 (− 1); t denotes the t statistic for the coefficient of y (− 1). D## refers to the dummy for that year
  2. *Significance at the .10 level based on critical values generated from the ARDL bootstrap bound test