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Table 7 Long-run causality test

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

F statistics (p value) (sign)F statistics (p value) (sign)F statistics (p value) (sign)
BrazilLCO22.136213/[0.1536] (–)2.460071 / [0.1266] (+)– –
IndiaLEC5.297746**/[0.0328] (+)– –1.561488/[0.2266] (+)
RussiaLEC0.352065/[0.5640] (–)– –0.699432/[0.4193] (+)
  1. Note: Asterisk ** indicates the 5% significance level
  2. Square brackets indicate the characterization factor of the p value. No cointegration and its causality test involve only lag variables