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Table 8 Results for Granger causality test based on ARDL model

From: Economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in the E7 countries: a bootstrap ARDL bound test

Country LGDP equationLEC equationLCO2 equation
 F statistics (p value)F statistics (p value)F statistics (p value)
BrazilLGDP– –2.405635*/[0.0800] (+)3.767159**/[0.0177] (–)
LEC8.200355***/[0.0005] (+)– –8.665529***/[0.0004] (–)
LCO28.047049***/[0.0017] (–)9.973761***/[0.0005] (+)– –
IndiaLGDP– –10.01860***/[0.0002] (+)2.494419*/[0.0842] (–)
LEC38.67256***/[0.0000] (+)– –59.24849***/[0.0000] (+)
LCO23.277671**/[0.0338] (+)4.296970**/[0.0126] (–)– –
IndonesiaLGDP– –2.728564*/[0.0827] (–)0.485877/[0.6202] (no)
LEC2.471449*/[0.0768] (–)– –1.661532/[0.2009] (no)
LCO23.369837**/[0.0303] (+)2.825815*/[0.0769] (+)– –
MexicoLGDP– –2.641577*/[0.0607] (+)6.732778***/[0.0012] (–)
LEC29.22243***/[0.0000] (+)– –4.472803***/[0.0090] (+)
LCO24.520791***/[0.0084] (–)5.014765***/[0.0053] (–)– –
People’s Republic of ChinaLGDP– –5.734735**/[0.0227] (–)10.60359***/[0.0027] (+)
LEC0.109901/[0.9534] (no)– –7.015114***/[0.0016] (+)
LCO26.805757***/[0.0019] (–)4.463740**/[0.0130] (+)– –
RussiaLGDP– –0.575145/[0.5843] (no)0.828062/[0.4711] (no)
LEC0.091798/[0.7671] (no)– –30.43173***/[0.0000] (+)
LCO26.120302**/[0.0293] (–)26.29907***/[0.0000] (+)– –
TurkeyLGDP– –1.556601/[0.2136] (no)1.348327/[0.2815] (no)
LEC12.47108***/[0.0001] (+)– –12.64742***/[0.0001] (+)
LCO230.21155***/[0.0000] (+)9.017897***/[0.0001] (+)– –
  1. Note: Asterisks ***, ** and * indicate the 1%, 5% and 10% significance levels, respectively
  2. Square brackets indicate the characterization factor of the p value. No cointegration and its causality test involve only lag variables