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Table 1 Certifications used by the 17 sampled industrial pellet mills in the southeast U.S.

From: Assessing the wood sourcing practices of the U.S. industrial wood pellet industry supplying European energy demand

Pellet mill Forest management certification Supply chain certification
1 15% of primary fiber SFI FM; 30–35% of the secondary residuals carry SFI FM certificates, 5% of secondary residuals carry FSC FM certificates). SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, FSC CW, SBP.
2 12% primary fiber certified (10% SFI FM, 2% ATFS), no residual sources carry FM certificates. SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, FSC CW, SBP.
3 4% primary fiber certified (3% SFI, 1% ATFS), no residual sources carry FM certificates. SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, FSC CW, SBP.
4 4.5% primary feedstock certified (4% SFI FM, 0.5% ATFS), 0.01% of secondary residuals carry FSC FM certificates). SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, FSC CW, SBP.
5 6.1% primary fiber certified (6% SFI FM, 0.1% ATFS), 0.01% of secondary residuals carry FSC FM certificates. SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, FSC CW, SBP.
6 1% primary fiber SFI FM, 0.01% of secondary residuals carry FSC FM certificates). SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, FSC CW, SBP.
7 41–51% primary fiber certified (40–50% SFI FM, 1% ATFS). PEFC CS, FSC CW, SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, SBP.
8 41–51% primary fiber certified (40–50% SFI FM, 1% ATFS). PEFC CS, FSC CW, SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, SBP.
9 41–51% primary fiber certified (40–50% SFI FM, 3% ATFS). PEFC CS, FSC CW, SFI FS, SFI COC, PEFC COC, SBP.
10 SFI FM, ATFS, and FSC FM (mostly sourcing from dual SFI/FSC certified lands). SFI COC, FSC CW, SBP certified, SFI FS.
11 Not sourcing directly from certified forests. PEFC COC, PEFC CS; FSC CW, SBP compliant.
12 Not sourcing primary fiber directly from certified forests, 12% secondary residual SFI FM. PEFC COC, PEFC CS; FSC CW, SBP compliant.
13 Did not report sourcing directly from certified forests. PEFC COC, PEFC CS, FSC CW, SBP compliant.
14 Did not report sourcing directly from certified forests. PEFC COC, PEFC CS, FSC CW, SBP compliant.
15 Did not report sourcing directly from certified forests. PEFC COC, PEFC CS, FSC CW, SBP compliant.
16 100% of feedstock SFI FM. FSC CW, PEFC CS, SBP certified, SFI FS.
17 28% of feedstock certified (21% SFI FM, 7% ATFS). FSC CW, FSC COC, SBP certified, GGL, SFI FS.
  1. SFI FM Sustainable Forestry Initiative forest management certification, SFI COC Sustainable Forestry Initiative chain of custody, SFI FS Sustainable Forestry Initiative Fiber Sourcing program, ATFS American Tree Farm System certification, PEFC COC Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification chain of custody, PEFC CS Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification controlled sources, FSC FM Forest Stewardship Council forest management certification, FSC COC Forest Stewardship Council chain of custody, FSC CW Forest Stewardship Council controlled wood, SBP certified sustainable biomass program certification, SBP compliant sustainable biomass program compliant biomass, GGL Green Gold Label certification