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Table 2 Feedstock type and source for 17 pellet mills in the southeast U.S. (2017). Annual production capacity given in metric tonnes year−1

From: Assessing the wood sourcing practices of the U.S. industrial wood pellet industry supplying European energy demand

Pellet mill Annual production capacity Feedstocks used Primary fiber sources Secondary and tertiary fiber sources
Primary fiber Secondary residuals Forest types Forest ownership
1 100,000–200,000 15% primary fiber (in-woods chips from thinnings) 85% secondary residuals (75% sawmill residuals and 10% non-sawmill wood product facilities) Pine and upland hardwood 15% from a single industrial owner under long-term contract; 85% non-industrial Volume-based supply contracts with a few wood dealers sourcing from 40 sawmills and 15 other wood product facilities
2 700,000–800,000 70% primary fiber 30% secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) 100% pine 80% non-industrial, 15% industrial, 5% public Volume-based supply contracts with approximately 15 wood brokers who each source from the same 15–20 sawmills
3 400,000–500,000 100% primary fiber (60% pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs and 40% in-woods chips) 90% of which is from final harvests and 10% thinnings 63% pine, 33% pine/hardwood, 3% bottomland hardwood, 2% upland hardwood 97% non-industrial; 3% industrial Volume-based supply contracts with 10 wood dealers
4 300,000–400,000 73% primary fiber (in-woods chips) 27% secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) 63% pine, 33% pine/hardwood, 3% bottomland hardwood, 2% upland hardwood 99% non-industrial, 1% industrial Volume-based supply contracts with 80 wood dealers sourcing from 35 to 40 sawmills
5 500,000–600,000 90% primary fiber (60% of total is harvest residuals as limbs and tops and 30% of total is pulpwood as tree-length logs) 10% secondary residues (sawmill residuals) 7% bottomland hardwood, 7% mill residues, 60% hardwood/pine, 23% pine, 3% upland hardwood 99% non-industrial, 1% industrial Volume-based supply contracts with 80 wood dealers sourcing from 35 to 40 sawmill
6 500,000–600,000 80% primary fiber (58% of total is pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs and 22% of total is in-woods chips) 20% secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) 2% bottomland forests, 3% pine/hardwood, 30% pine, 7% upland hardwood 99% non-industrial, 1% industrial Volume-based supply contracts with 80 wood dealers sourcing from 35 to 40 sawmill
7 400,000–500,000 70% primary fiber (pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs), 10% harvest residuals 20% secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) 100% pine 50% non-industrial, 40% industrial, 10% public 40% with landowners, 20–30% from wood dealers. The remainder is from sawmills and/or in-woods chips
8 400,000–500,000 70% primary fiber (pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs), 10% harvest residuals 20% secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) 100% pine Non-industrial, 40% industrial, 10% public 40% with landowners 20–30% from wood dealers. The remainder is from sawmills and/or in-woods chips
9 400,000–500,000 20% primary fiber (pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs) 80% residuals + 90% pine, ~ 10% hardwood 85% non-industrial, 12% industrial, 3% public 100% from wood dealers
10 200,000–300,000 Roundwood (respondent considers roundwood a residual when it comes from thinnings), harvest residuals 100% secondary residuals from wood processing facilities Pine and mixed pine/hardwood Vertically integrated sourcing primarily from company owned lands, other private lands, and occasionally public Does not source from wood dealers, primarily because independent wood dealers do not have chain of custody
11 100,000–200,000 100% secondary residuals from wood processing facilities Pine, upland hardwood/pine 70% non-industrial, 25% industrial, 5% public 60 sawmills, 10 non-sawmill secondary processors. None of the supply is under long-term contracts.
12 200,000–300,000 50% primary fiber (pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs). 50% secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) Pine, upland hardwood/pine 70% non-industrial, 25% industrial, 5% public 60 sawmills, 10 non-sawmill secondary processors. None of the supply is under long-term contracts
13 100,000–200,000 100% secondary residuals from wood processing facilities Pine, upland hardwood/pine 70% non-industrial, 25% industrial, 5% public 60 sawmills, 10 non-sawmill secondary processors. None of the supply is under long-term contracts
14 50,000–100,000 100% secondary residuals from wood processing facilities Pine, upland hardwood/pine 70% non-industrial, 25% industrial, 5% public Sawmills and non-sawmill secondary processors from a multi-state area
15 100,000–200,000 100% secondary residuals from wood processing facilities Pine, upland hardwood/pine 70% non-industrial, 25% industrial, 5% public Sawmills and non-sawmill secondary processors from a multi-state area
16 500,000–600,000 80% pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs; 20% tree tops from pine plantations 100% pine 100% industrial 100% under contract with a single landowner
17 700,000–800,000 Primary fiber (pulpwood size roundwood as tree-length logs and in-woods chips) Secondary residuals (sawmill residuals) 92% pine, 8% hardwood 30% industrial, 70% non-industrial 32 sawmills, in-woods chips from 3 wood dealers, tree-length roundwood under contract with 3 industrial landowners, secondary residuals from 45 wood dealers