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Table 14 Input specifications for the power system components

From: Assessment of a decentralized grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) / wind / biogas hybrid power system in northern Nigeria

Components Costs Life span Sizes used Others
PV panel (Q-Cell 225/polycrystalline) C.C, 3000$/kW; R.C, 3000$/kW; O&M, 10$/kW /[31] 25 years Range of (400–3500 kW) Efficiency at standard test condition, 15.3%; nominal operating cell temperature, 45 °C; temperature coefficient of power, − 0.42%/°C; derating factor, 80%; ground reflectance, 20% /[31]
Wind turbine (Enercon E33) C.C 131, 146.11$/unit; R.C 128,469.66$/unit; O&M 1338.23$/unit (updated cost of 2012 at 6% I.R) /[40] 25 years Range of (1 – 30 units) Rated power, 330–335 kW AC; tower height, 50 m; cut-in speed, 3 m/s; rated speed, 13 m/s/[HOMER specification]
Biogas power genset C.C, 1685.4$/unit; R.C, 1348.32$/unit; O&M, 0.11$/unit (composite of the biodigester and the biogas genset: updated cost of 2015 at 6% I.R) /[41] 15,000 h Range of (400–3500 kW) Minimum load ratio, 30; calculated biogas intercept coefficient, 0.1083 kg/h/kWp [42]; calculated biogas slope, 0.5685 kg/h/kWout [42]; emissions (kg/kg fuel): CO–33, NOx–6.17, PM–0.00068 [43, 44]
Battery (Surette 6CS25P)/for the off-grid case only C.C, 1348$/unit; R.C, 1123.6$/unit; O&M, 16.85$/unit (updated costs of 2015 at 6% I.R) /[41] 12 Range of (10–150 units) Voltage, 6 V; nominal capacity, 1156 Ah; round trip efficiency, 80%; life throughput, 9645 kWh; min SOC, 40%; max power, 0.25 kW/[HOMER specification]
Inverter (Generic C) C.C, 700$/unit; R.C, 700$/unit; O&M, 10$/unit /[31] 15 Range of (200–1200 kW) DC-AC efficiency, 90%; AC-DC efficiency, 85%; capacity (rectifier/inverter), 100%
  1. C.C capital cost, R.C replacement cost, O&M operation and maintenance cost, I.R nterest rate