Skip to main content

Table 13 Data description, measurement, and sources

From: Renewable energy consumption in Africa: the role of economic well-being and economic freedom

Variable A priori expected sign Notation Description and sources
Dependent variable: Renewable energy consumption (% of total final energy consumption)   Renewable Renewable energy consumption which is measured as the share of renewable energy in total final energy consumption.
Source: WDI (2018)
Explanatory variables
Human Development Index Positive (+) HDI HDI Real GDP per capita is the annual percentage growth rate of output in constant 2010 local currency divided by the midyear population. Real GDP is measured by the summation of gross value added by all producers in the economy plus net indirect taxes.
Source: WDI (2018)
Property rights Positive (+) PR Property rights component assesses the extent to which a country’s legal framework allows individuals to accumulate private property freely, secured by clear laws that the government enforces effectively. Relying on a mix of survey data and independent assessments, it provides a quantifiable measure of the degree to which a country’s laws protect private property rights and the extent to which those laws are respected. It also assesses the likelihood that private property will be expropriated by the state. It is measured on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest).
Source: The Heritage Foundation (2018).
Tax burden Negative (−) TB Tax burden is a composite measure that reflects marginal tax rates on both personal and corporate income and the overall level of taxation (including direct and indirect taxes imposed by all levels of government) as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). It is measured on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest).
Source: The Heritage Foundation (2018)
Trade freedom Positive (+) TF Trade freedom is a composite measure of the extent of tariff and non-tariff barriers that affect imports and exports of goods and services. It is measured on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest) based on two inputs: The trade-weighted average tariff rate and non-tariff barriers (NTBs).
Source: The Heritage Foundation (2018)
Business freedom Positive (+) BF The business freedom component measures the extent to which the regulatory and infrastructure environments constrain the efficient operation of businesses. The quantitative score is derived from an array of factors that affect the ease of starting, operating, and closing a business. The business freedom score for each country is a number between 0 and 100, with 100 indicating the freest business environment.
Source: The Heritage Foundation (2018)
Economic Structure Positive (+)/negative (−) ES It is the industry value added as a share of services value added.
Source: WDI (2018)
  1. *WDI, world development indicators