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Table 2 Panel unit root test results

From: Renewable energy consumption in Africa: the role of economic well-being and economic freedom

Test methods Variables lnRE HDI PR BF TF TB ES
Null: Unit root (assumes common unit root process)
 LLCt-stat Level −2.17 −5.60 −2.91 −0.21 −4.97 −3.15 −4.47
Prob. 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.00 0.00 0.00
1. diff. −10.99 −4.58 −1.73 −8.07 −11.45 −10.87 −19.69
Prob. 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Null: Unit root (Assumes Individual unit root process)
 ADFFisher chi-square Level 49.97 57.2 233.17 60.1 104.6 85.27 77.50
Prob. 0.90 0.71 0.00 0.61 0.00 0.04 0.00
1. diff. 249.50 124.0 240.38 226.7 317.2 261.28 368.79
Prob. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 PPFisher chi-square Level 53.85 87.57 64.81 76.94 112.56 101.03 95.53
Prob. 0.81 0.00 0.11 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.09
1. diff. 493.57 267.6 269.33 646.6 1034.6 1102.7 413.49
Prob. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 IPSw-stat Level 0.89 3.66 −4.87 −0.17 −3.09 −0.79 −1.83
Prob. 0.81 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.21 0.03
1. diff. −11.31 −4.76 −9.23 −10.33 −14.39 −11.97 −17.51
Prob. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
  1. p value < 1% implies highly significant estimate