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Table 5 Estimated electricity consumption and potential demand flexibility in 2040.

From: Heat consumption scenarios in the rural residential sector: the potential of heat pump-based demand-side management for sustainable heating

   Scenario
  Scale SEE AEE DEE
Retrofit target by 2040 (number of houses) Study area 2907 5813 8720
Share of the total (%) Study area 25 50 75
Total electricity consumption for heating (MWh/year) Study area 5372.2 7163.0 8058.4
Average electricity consumption for heating (kWh/year) Household 1848.0 1232.2 924.1
Theoretical flexibility \({L}_{\mathrm{shift},H}\) (kW) Household 1.5 1.2 1.2
Aggregated theoretical flexibility
\({L}_{\mathrm{shift},A}\) (MW)
Study area 4.3 6.8 10.2
Total flexibility per 24 h (kWh electricity) Household 3.4 3.4 3.4
Heat storage capacity (kWh heat) Household 11.5 11.5 11.5